A partnership between the UNESCO Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report and the MECCE Project is generating new insights on country approaches to climate change communication and education (CCE). The profiles offer a comparative perspective of country progress on Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Targets 4.7 and 13.3. The profiles aim to promote peer learning and policy dialogue between countries on CCE.

A total of 50 country profiles have been completed to date, and another round will be completed in 2023. The country profiles are also available on the GEM Report’s PEER website at Select country profiles are also available in Spanish or French. 


  • UNFCCC Member Type

  • SDG Region

  • UNFCCC Negotiating Group

  • Clear



The selected countries represent a balance of 1) UNFCCC Annex 1 and Non-Annex 1 countries; 2) SDG regions, including Small Islands Developing States (SIDS), Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDC) and Least Developed Countries (LDC), according to the UN classification; and a diversity of 3) emissions levels (using the Global Carbon Atlas), 4) climate vulnerability levels (using the Climate Risk Index and Climate Vulnerability Index), and 5) income levels (using World Bank Data). The countries in the sample are jointly selected by the MECCE Project and UNESCO GEM Report. Many of the countries selected in the first year are also included in the UNESCO 2021 report Learn for our Planet, authored by the MECCE Project’s Indicator Development Lead, Aaron Benavot, and Director, Marcia McKenzie. 


Data Collection and Preparation Process

The profiles are compiled by the MECCE Project through desk reviews, followed by analysis and expert reviews. They are prepared through the review and synthesis of international commitments, national laws, policies, action plans, and programmes. 

A detailed search protocol is followed to collect information and documents from each country, including National Communications, Nationally Determined Contributions, laws, policies, curriculum documents, and websites of relevant government agencies. Education Sector Plan and National Curriculum Framework data come from the MECCE Project’s Indicator Development Axis. Keyword searches identify relevant sections and content, which is extracted and entered into a spreadsheet to ensure a systematic search. In the case of federal countries, national level documents, plans and policies are emphasized for analysis.

The profiles describe each country’s:

  1. National context, including climate change impacts; relevant government agencies; laws, policies, and plans; CCE terminology in use; and national budget allocated to CCE.
  2. Climate change education activities related to the Education and Training ACE elements. This includes curriculum and teacher education in primary and secondary education, and tertiary education, Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET), and adult education.
  3. Climate change communication activities related to the Public Awareness, Public Access to Information, and Public Participation ACE elements.
  4. National CCE/ACE monitoring, drawing data from Axis 2 of the MECCE Project. 


Expert Review

After a peer review and editing process, the country profiles are shared with the GEM Report for a comprehensive review and input. More than 500 experts, including national ACE focal points, national delegations, and MECCE Project team members, have been invited to review, update and validate the information. Countries are encouraged to provide feedback and help ensure the profiles are comprehensive, accurate, and up to date. Contact the GEM Report at education.profiles(at) or the MECCE Project at to provide input.

Public awareness is the most common CCE approach identified in the 50 country profiles. In total, 94% of countries mentioned public awareness in their climate change-related laws, policies or plans.


88% of the 50 countries included a focus on public participation for climate change in their laws, policies and plans. 86% of the 50 countries identified youth as a target audience.


90% of the 50 countries have laws, policies or plans at primary and secondary education levels that include climate change. However, only 39% of countries have a national level law, policy or plan specifically focused on climate change education.


63% of teacher training plans include a focus on climate change.



66% of the 50 countries target girls and gender minorities in their CCE initiatives and 44% mentioned Indigenous Peoples as a target audience in their national communications on climate change.


Of the 50 countries, 76% included climate change in laws, policies and plans related to technical and vocational education and training (TVET). A total of 71% of the 50 countries include training for government workers. 78% of countries include climate change in laws, policies and plans related to higher education.


Only 27% of the 50countries have publicly available CCE budgets.


Only 42% of the 50 countries report on Sustainable Development Goal Targets 4.7/13.3.



The MECCE Project’s country profiles project is led by Professor Heila Lotz-Sisitka; coordinated by Stefanie Mallow; managed by Nicola Chopin; and directed by Professor Marcia McKenzie. We are grateful for the partnership with GEM Report collaborators Manos Antoninis, Anna Cristina D’Addio, and Daniel April. Finally, many thanks to the experts who reviewed the profiles. 


We are also grateful to the following research assistants, who have contributed to the country profiles project:


  • Stefanie Mallow, University of Saskatchewan
  • Jessica Abonizio, Monash University
  • Diego Calvo Bonilla, University of Saskatchewan
  • Ben de Souza, Rhodes University
  • Yuxuan (Ame) Gong, University at Albany – State University of New York
  • Kristen Hargis, University of Saskatchewan
  • Hajar Idrissi, University of Saskatchewan
  • Sara Lee, University of Saskatchewan
  • Sidney Muhangi, Rhodes University
  • Narayanamoorthy Niveditha, University of Saskatchewan
  • Kağan Porsuk, Freie Universität Berlin
  • Darren Rabinowitz, University at Albany – State University of New York
  • Srishti Singh, University of Saskatchewan
  • Leonie Ströbele, Freie Universität Berlin
  • Ali Thwaites, University of Saskatchewan