CCE Country Profile


Table of Contents

We encourage countries to give input on the profiles to assist us in keeping them accurate and up to date. Please contact the GEM Report (education.profiles(at) or the MECCE Project ( to give input. The country profiles are also available on the GEM Report’s Profiles Enhancing Education Reviews (PEER) website at

This profile has been reviewed by country experts.


I) Climate change context

The Kingdom of Tonga, an archipelago of 176 coral and volcanic islands, is a constitutional monarchy in the South Pacific Ocean. Tonga has a population of about 104,500 people (2019) and a total area of 747 km2. It is a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) and as per the World Bank, is highly vulnerable to climate change and natural disasters due to the remoteness and size of its islands. The main island of Tongatapu, where the capital Nuku‘alofa is located, is the largest island, covering about one-third of the country’s total area. Natural resources are the primary source of livelihood for Tonga’s residents. 

According to the World Bank, Tonga’s climate is mainly tropical, and its economy is highly dependent on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, fisheries and tourism. Tonga’s climate patterns are also strongly influenced by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Southeast Pacific, which makes the country susceptible to prolonged droughts, depletion of water resources and increased intensity of tropical cyclones. The Third National Communication (2019) confirms that the country is primarily affected by sea-level rise and ocean acidification. Tonga is already facing climate-induced migration, and the World Bank notes that the country faces a potential long-term threat from permanent inundation, potentially resulting in significant displacement of Tongan communities.

As per the Global Carbon Atlas, in 2021 Tonga ranked 144th in the world for carbon emissions. It has a per-capita emission of 1.6 tCO2/person, which is far below the world average. In its national documents, the Tonga Government notes Tonga’s overall negligible contribution to global emissions. According to a 2021 article by the Pacific Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, transport (40%) and the electricity sector (23%) account for the largest fossil fuel consumption in the country. Together, they are responsible for over half of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions.

Tonga is a Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC). Tonga ratified the Kyoto Protocol in January 2008 and the Paris Agreement in September 2016. The country accepted the Doha Amendment in October 2018.

II) Relevant government agencies

Climate change

The Ministry of Meteorology, Energy, Information, Disaster Management, Environment, Climate Change and Communications (MEIDECC) of the Tonga Government provides technical assistance to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on all environment-related issues concerned with the United Nations and related agencies, as well as regional intergovernmental organizations. The ministry is the national focal point and acts as an implementing agency for several international environmental agreements signed by the government. Tonga had not appointed a national Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) focal point  at the time of writing.  

Various government departments, such as the Department of Environment, Department of Climate Change and Department of Energy, work within the MEIDECC and develop policies, regulations and programmes in their core work areas. For example, the Department of Climate Change was established to address the climate change impacts and facilitate adaptation and mitigation efforts across the country. The department has dedicated divisions for communication and information, policy and planning, mitigation, and vulnerability and adaptation. The Department of Environment acts as the operational focal point within the country for the government’s environmental agreements. The department is responsible for collecting environmental data, conducting assessments and developing operational plans and strategies.

The Ministry of Lands & Natural Resources is committed to promoting the sustainable use of the country’s natural resources, given its high dependency on them. The ministry is engaged in managing land, mineral resources and energy for the benefit of residents, and for developing and implementing environmental programmes. The ministry’s strategic themes include knowledge and information, sustainable natural resource management and improving resilience.

The Ministry of Finance provides economic and financial advice and coordinates and reviews the country’s resource needs for all sectors. This includes investments in initiatives working on climate change, such as on the impact on water resources and disaster risk management.

Tonga Meteorological Services provides meteorological and maritime radio services, including climate-related data, to support the economic development, safety, and well-being of residents and visitors. 

The Ministry of Agriculture & Food, Forests and Fisheries provides policy advice to the government on making the agricultural and fishery sectors productive, competitive and sustainable for the future. Its goals include how best to achieve social, economic and environmental benefits through the sustainable use of limited land and water resources and fostering a climate-resilient environment to ensure Tonga’s natural resources are preserved in the face of the impacts of climate change.

Education and communication

Tonga’s Ministry of Education and Training is primarily responsible for the administration and management of education and training activities in the country and aims for equitable access to quality, relevant and sustainable education. It ensures the effective use of communications and information systems so that education systems are more responsive to emerging social and economic issues, including climate change.

The Tonga Institute of Education, Tonga Institute of Higher Education, and Tonga Institute of Science and Technology are different branches of the Ministry of Education and Training that provide teacher education programmes, tertiary education and technical training, respectively. Climate change is not explicitly covered under these programmes.

The Curriculum Development Unit is mandated by the Ministry of Education and Training to ‘improve the quality, equitability, accessibility, relevancy, and sustainability of universal compulsory basic education’ for Tongan children aged between 4 and 18. The unit is also responsible for working with other ministries to implement climate change projects in schools. 

The Tonga National Qualifications and Accreditation Board (TNQAB) provides tertiary education services and is responsible for the quality assurance of training providers and accreditation of study courses for stated qualifications. It is also involved in community education programmes.

III) Relevant laws, policies, and plans

Climate change

The Tonga Climate Change Fund Act (2021) was established by the Tonga Government to receive national and international aid to implement national climate change projects on adaptation and mitigation. The fund’s purpose is to collect financial resources, make specific investments in climate-related programmes and activities, build national resilience, and assist in achieving the goals of the three UN conventions. Climate change education and communication are not highlighted in the fund.

The Kingdom of Tonga has established a Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 (2015) developed by the Ministry of Finance. The framework emphasizes the risks posed by climate change and the importance of building greater resilience to make sustainable progress, as well as prioritizing a knowledge-based economy. The framework recognizes that the damage from extreme events could be reduced through climate communication, education on disaster risk preparedness and better awareness of response measures. It also plans to deliver improved technical and vocational education and training. The plan also targets the achievement of gender equity by 2025, considering this an important components of overall sustainability. The National Women’s Empowerment and Gender Equality Tonga Policy and Strategic Plan of Action 2019–2025 (2019) focuses on national priorities to address gender issues that the government has agreed need urgent attention. 

The mission of the Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016), prepared by the MEIDECC is ‘to develop a resilient Tonga through an inclusive, participatory approach that is based on good governance; builds knowledgeable, proactive communities; and supports a strong, sustainable development pathway’ (p. 5). The need to understand climate change, have a clear system of disaster preparedness for all communities and incorporate ‘Education for Resilience’ into curricula at all levels is outlined under the plan’s targets. To fully mainstream the goal of Resilient Tonga into government legislation, policies and planning, the policy has established objectives, which include: 

  • to strengthen existing decision-making structures;
  • to fully embed the goal of a Resilient Tonga through planning, design and execution of programmes in all government ministries, together with ongoing capacity development for all climate change staff and across all ministries to ensure a fully coordinated approach;
  • to implement a fully coordinated resilience planning approach across all relevant government ministries to ensure that they all have actionable and costed plans to achieve the targets for a Resilient Tonga;
  • to develop standard resilience guidelines for all community engagement activities which are to be implemented through strengthened partnerships between government, civil society organizations (CSOs) and the private sector. 

The Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (JNAP, 2018) also addressed the second National Adaptation Plan of Tonga, which aims to achieve the vision of a Resilient Tonga by 2035 by delivering specific targets and adopting a ‘whole of Tonga’ approach. The plan’s objectives include implementing a coordinated system for managing data and information, building climate response capacity and taking action that fosters resilience. The plan is also prepared by the MEIDECC and is aligned with the objectives and outcomes of the country’s Climate Change Policy. Three priority targets include: 30% of land being available for agro-forestry or forestry; resilient coastal development infrastructures and integrated coastal ecosystems management; and resilient fisheries and marine and coastal ecosystems. 

The Tonga Strategic Roadmap for Emergency and Disaster Risk Management 2021 – 2023 (2021) aims to strengthen emergency management performance through sectoral coordination and cooperation. Recognizing that the hazards are predicted to intensify in the country with more climate change impacts, the roadmap focuses on inclusivity, capacity development, participatory planning and disaster risk management interventions.

The Tonga National Water Policy (2011) highlights the importance of mainstreaming climate change and disaster risk considerations into planning processes, policies, project design and the execution of programmes. The policy aims to enhance the technical knowledge base, information, education, and understanding of climate change and natural disasters and the impacts on water resources and water supply. 

The Tonga Fisheries Sector Plan 2016-2024 (n.d.) identifies priority actions and investments to maximize the sustainable contribution of the fisheries sector to the country’s food security and economic growth. As the fisheries sector is being significantly affected by climate change, the plan aims to coordinate and support stakeholder capacity-building as well as to create awareness and educational information on sector-specific sustainability. The plan emphasizes the delivery of improved technical and vocational education and training (TVET) to meet the demand for a skilled workforce. 

The Low Emission Development Strategy 2021 – 2050 (LT-LEDS, 2021) presents a vision of ‘A low emissions Tonga, where all sectors work together to create resilience, autonomy & self-reliance.’ The strategy has been developed by the Department of Climate Change of the MEIDECC, is funded by New Zealand’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade and has received technical assistance and support from the Global Green Growth Institute, Climateworks Australia and Relative Creative. The need for skilling and capacity building is addressed in Action 5 ‘educate and train individuals’, and is reflected through the modification of the curriculum, including TVET, and the training of teachers, together with capacity-building programmes for government officials and businesses.

Education and communication 

The government’s Education Act of Tonga (2013) aims for a just and equal society by focusing on inclusive education and strengthening the capacity of the school systems to reach out to all students and learners. However, neither climate change nor sustainability are mentioned in documentation related to the Act. 

The Tonga Education Policy Framework 2004-19 (2004) targets the provision of sustained quality education for the country’s development. However, it does not mention the environment, climate change education or environmental sustainability. 

The Tonga Qualifications Framework (2009) seeks to create better quality of life and employment opportunities for Tongans through ‘good governance, equitable and environmentally sustainable private sector-led economic growth, improved education and health standards, and cultural development’ (p. 3). Neither climate change nor the environment is mentioned in the framework.

The Tonga National Youth Policy & Strategic Plan of action 2021-2025 (n.d.) emphasizes urgent action to combat climate change, especially in the context of safeguarding the younger generations. The plan prioritizes partnerships between key youth stakeholders with on-the-ground village and constituency councils to improve the quantity and quality of capacity building programmes on climate change and related impacts.

At the time of writing, Tonga’s Education Sector Development Plan was under review.

IV) Terminology used for climate communication and education

The national documents of the Kingdom of Tonga, such as the Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016), Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 (2015), and the Third National Communication (2019) mention ‘sustainable development’ the most. Only the Third National Communication (2019) refers to ‘climate change education,’ mainly in the form of adaptation measures and the assessment of the country’s vulnerabilities.  Climate change communication and education-related terms such as ‘environmental education’ and ‘education for sustainable development’ were not mentioned in any of the documents analysed for this review. 

The Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 defines ‘sustainable development’ as:

“development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, this is a development that enhances our inheritance and passes it on improved.”

– (p.15)

The Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018), focuses on ‘capacity building’ for building disaster risk resilience and sets the target as:

“Strengthened capacity and awareness for all families and communities on climate change and disaster risk management with special attention and capacity for disaster preparedness, response, recovery, rehabilitation and building back better. “


The Joint National Action Plan 2  (2018) and Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016) mention ‘education for resilience’, with reference to building knowledge and understanding of a Resilient Tonga among the students at all levels of formal education.

V) Budget for climate communication and education

The World Bank estimates that the country spent 12.7% of its total budget on education in 2021, which is lower than its total budget on education in 2020 (15.5%). Climate change-specific figures are not part of the World Bank analysis. A 2020 report of the International Monetary Fund estimates that Tonga’s financial needs for achieving climate resilience will amount to ~7% of GDP in 2030. Considering the overlapping sectoral needs to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and increase climate resilience, health and education comprise two-thirds, because of their strong direct and indirect links to the climate. Combining the five SDGs with the identified climate-related plans amounts to an annual cost of 13 percent of the GDP in 2030. 

The Pacific region’s first and only national climate change fund, the Tonga Climate Change Trust Fund, was established under the Tonga Climate Change Fund Act (2021) to provide additional financial support for adaptation and mitigation efforts across the country. The support is offered to scale up community-based renewable energy projects and coastal protection measures to encourage ownership among governments and communities for climate-related initiatives. The initial amount of US $4 million was provided as an endowment account, along with US $1 million as an operational fund to assist climate projects directly. The fund promotes knowledge sharing and enhanced understanding of climate change and its impacts among communities and provides information on eligibility and accessibility to the Fund.

The Kingdom of Tonga receives assistance under various global, multilateral and bilateral funding mechanisms. The Green Climate Fund (GCF) has funded two projects to the value of US $32.3 million, both focusing on renewable energy. About 20 other projects are in the pipeline and are at various stages of the GCF cycle. The project’s themes range from strengthening community resilience, early warning systems, resilient recovery and adaptation planning. 

Through the Safe and Resilient Schools Project, under its Pacific Resilience Program, the World Bank has committed US $25 million between 2022 and 2027. The project is to be implemented by the Ministry of Education and Training, and the objectives are to improve the quality of data-driven education management, develop curricula, conduct assessments and to set up an effective emergency response system. 

Tonga is one of the three Pacific land nations supported by the Climate Investment Fund’s Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) regional programme, which was approved in 2012. The US$ 20-million investment plan for Tonga is targeted to support capacity-building programmes for mainstreaming climate change into national-level planning and increasing the climate resilience of vulnerable sectors and communities. The government is co-financing the initiative with an investment of US $3.86 million in 2020, and the Asian Development Bank also supports the programme through its Climate Resilience Sector Project.

Australia and New Zealand also provide financial assistance to Tonga. Since 2016, the Australian Government has provided US $13.4 million for building Tonga’s climate change and disaster resilience under various bilateral agreements for infrastructure, education, energy and governance. It has also supported Tonga through regional and global programmes, such as through an investment of US $7.5 million for the Accelerating Climate Education programme (2016-2021) to tailor climate education materials and integrate climate change into skills development under the Tonga Skills Program. The support has also assisted Tonga in the Pacific Women Shaping Pacific Development programme (US $9 million, 2012–2022) for awareness raising on gender and climate change, supporting women’s voices and participation in decision-making to increase gender based-responsiveness. The Australian government’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade provides technical and financial assistance to the Kingdom of Tonga and a commitment to strengthening climate and disaster resilience in the Pacific (2021).

In 2019, the Government of New Zealand identified climate change as a priority area of cooperation and is implementing the Tonga Four-Year Plan (2021) from 2021 to 2024. A total of US $64.59 million has been approved for the interventions within the Pacific Development Cooperation plan. The plan’s strategic goals focus on strengthening inclusive governance, human development and well-being and security, with a view to promoting climate resilience and sustainable development. It also committed US $4.9 million to Tonga’s Climate Change Trust Fund for anticipated projects on increasing the resilience of public infrastructure, enhancing coastal protections, reducing reliance on fossil fuels for energy and transport, and developing sustainable agriculture and protection for biodiversity.

The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has developed a Country Development Cooperation Policy and Rolling Plan for Tonga. It has provided financial support of US $0.2 million for basic, vocational and inclusive education, including science and mathematics, under its Education Sector Support Programme. Climate change education is not specifically mentioned in the plan. 

According to the Third National Communication (2019), the Japanese Government supports the rural communities of Tonga in their shift towards renewable energy for water supply through the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Sustainable Development Pacific Environment Community Fund Project of US $4 million. Other funding mechanisms outlined in the document are not explicitly targeted towards climate change communication and education. 

The Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) makes reference to financial support for resilience building. It mainly focuses on access to finance and resources but does not explicitly showcase mechanisms to support climate change education.


I) Climate change in pre-primary, primary, and secondary education

The Tonga Government recognizes the country’s extreme vulnerability to climate change through national policies and plans and highlights the importance of building climate change understanding in school curricula. A 2020 article by the World Bank notes that Tongan schools are severely impacted by cyclones, causing severe impacts on children’s education. However, climate change communication and education are not yet fully integrated at the school level. 

Tonga’s education system consists of primary, secondary and post-secondary education. Primary education is compulsory for children aged 5 to 11 and is free for all citizens. As reported in the Third  National Communication (2019), the seven-year secondary education phase is provided by seven government high schools, private institutions and churches. The government also runs two side schools, where the only medium of instruction is English. While there is pre-school education for children aged 3 to 5, it has not been integrated into Tonga’s formal education system.

As the official syllabus for various subjects such as science (standards 1-8), science (standards 7 & 8), and related resource books, is only available in the public sphere in Tongan, the climate change topics in the school curriculum could not be assessed. The Study Guide on Computing and ICT for standard 9 includes a section on environmental issues that covers environmental impacts caused by ICT and how it leads to greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, and sea-level rise. The section includes activities and provides recommendations on e-waste management and energy conservation measures. Other handbooks from different schools, such as Tonga High School (2017) and Ha’apai High School (2017), are available. However, they do not reference the environment, sustainable development, or climate change.

A visual climate change guide for Tonga (2014) targeting primary and secondary school students, was developed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) as part of the Coping with climate change in the Pacific Island Region (CCCPIR) initiative. The aim is to show climate change impacts in the local context. It comprises a climate change education component to strengthen the knowledge capacity within schools, and to develop and deliver education on climate adaptation and mitigation. The colourful illustrated book covers topics such as the water cycle, causes of climate change, the changing climate of Tonga, the effect of extreme weather events, and mitigation and adaptation measures. Under the same partnership and along similar lines, the Third National Communication (2019) reports that a children’s storybook, ‘Pou and Miri learn to tackle climate change (2011), was developed and later translated into Tongan. Under the same initiative, a Climate Change Warrior Project was implemented by the Ministry of Education and Training in 17 secondary schools across Tonga in collaboration with the Pacific Community and GIZ. The project involved students analysing climate impacts and undertaking local activities, such as greening initiatives.

The Tonga Safe and Resilient Schools Project implemented by the Ministry of Education and Training and funded by the World Bank, aims to enhance the safety and resilience of identified schools throughout Tonga, to ensure that school buildings are disaster resilient and provide safe and secure student classrooms, including the provision of water, sanitation and hygiene facilities, and clean drinking water. The project’s objectives are to improve the quality of education through the development of an Education Management Information System (EMIS), to enhance the quality of teaching, and to review and improve Tonga’s school curricula and assessment processes.

New Zealand’s University of Waikato implemented a Pacific research methodology, known as Talanoa, for a climate change education intervention at a secondary school in Tonga. The approach helped to build relationships within the classroom, recognize students’ experiences and levels of understanding, and give a voice to their climate concerns. The intervention improved students’ knowledge on climate change-related issues, helped them to become more engaged and motivated them to play a more active role in preparing for their own futures. 

The Third National Communication (2019) reports that school visits and awareness programmes were conducted in three schools by the Department of Climate Change in 2017. This included tree planting activities and conducting interviews with children and teachers on the importance of the programme. In 2014, an art competition on the theme of the importance of mangroves for the coasts and community livelihoods was organized, in which 50 school children participated and learned about the role of mangroves in the ecosystem and how it is being impacted by climate change.

The Third National Communication (2019) recommends the establishment of a chapter on energy in the school syllabus and calls for a revision of the school curricula to enhance the capacities of the Tongan citizens at the broadest level. The document also mentions that the Ministry of Education and Training is in the process of integrating climate change and disaster risk management into the school curriculum. This is happening in parallel with the establishment of a new national Working Group on Education on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management, which is to provide strategic direction on matters related to climate change and disaster risk education. This was also included in the 2013 article ‘Tonga Integrates CC And DRM Into Educationpublished by the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPERP). No update was available at the time of writing. The Third National Communication (2019) focuses on fishery-related education at the school level to enhance the understanding of environmental and conservation issues among children and to revitalize traditional values. 

The Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016) and the Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018) are developed with similar objectives. Both include a sub-objective for schools related to building the capacity for an appropriate response, which says: ‘to ensure that understanding of a Resilient Tonga is incorporated into all school and tertiary education curricula’ (p. 35). The plan also refers to the importance of developing child-centred climate change adaptation for the integration of climate resilience in school curricula. The Low Emission Development Strategy 2021-2050 (LEDS, 2021) emphasizes the inclusion of environmental concepts, such as waste, into the education curriculum through revisions to the current content. The aim is to increase environmental awareness and disaster preparedness through education. It notes that consideration should be given to student loans to support vocational and tertiary education in particular. However, other national frameworks such as the Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 (2015), Tonga Strategic Roadmap for Emergency and Disaster Risk Management 2021-2023 (2021), and Voluntary National Review (2019), do not mention strategies or highlight work on climate change in formal education settings, placing more focus on access to education. The Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) also does not include any strategy focused on schools and climate change communication and education. 

A Youth Leadership Programme for island countries including Tonga aimed at high school students and educators in STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Maths) was conducted in 2021, by the U.S. Department of State and administered by Legacy International. The five-month virtual exchange programme focused on building innovative sustainable engineering solutions and covered local environmental issues, the climate crisis, design thinking, community awareness projects and sustainable solutions. On the strength of the programme, the Tongan students built a Green Unity group that works on composting, vertical farming and other environment-friendly prototypes.

The Third National Communication (2019) covers education, training and awareness programmes through various themes and sectors outlined in the document. These include formal education, water, energy, and climate adaptation measures. The overall focus is on education for at-risk communities, consumer awareness programmes and encouraging people’s participation in the interventions.

Recognizing that many schools do not have the appropriate infrastructure to deal with the impacts of climate change, some not-for-profit organizations in Tonga are supporting the construction of weather-resistant schools. To this end, the first cyclone and earthquake-resistant kindergarten is being constructed on the island of Eua. It is being done by the Friends of Tonga Inc., in collaboration with Schools For Children of the World. Plans are under way for the construction of more schools, in partnership with the Ministry of Education and Training. The ministry and CSOs are also addressing climate-related impacts and extreme events, such as school closures, and creating virtual learning environments and online resources.

II) Climate change in teacher training and teacher resources

The Tonga Government is attempting to engage teachers in training programmes on climate change communication and education. For example, the Tonga Institute of Education nurtures quality teachers to meet the demands of stakeholders through a range of diplomas, certificates and training for primary, secondary and early-childhood teachers. The programmes are also covered as part of the e-learning portal, which has courses on teaching and learning methodologies for relevant subjects such as mathematics and geography. However, climate change does not form a part of these programmes.

Learning about climate change the Pacific Way: A guide for Pacific teachers’ (2013) was developed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and GIZ as part of the Coping with climate change in the Pacific Island Region (CCCPIR) initiative. The aim is to support primary and secondary school teachers in the delivery of national key messages on climate science, the impacts of climate change in the Pacific region, and mitigation and adaptation options. The purpose of the guide is to help teachers facilitate the visual climate change guide for Tonga and explain complex climate change topics covered in the book, such as the water cycle, causes of climate change, Tonga’s changing climate, the impact of extreme weather events and mitigation and adaptation measures. The guide provides detailed explanations on all the concepts as well as their interconnectedness. 

Professional development sessions for teachers were conducted by New Zealand’s University of Waikato at a secondary school in Tonga, as a teaching and learning approach. The Talanoa approach was used to help improve teachers’ understanding on climate change. The climate change education intervention helped learners apply their existing knowledge about climate change, and looked at how other relevant areas that could be covered. 

National strategies, including the Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 (2015), Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016), the Tonga Strategic Roadmap for Emergency and Disaster Risk Management 2021 – 2023 (2021), the Voluntary National Review (2019) and the Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) do not include training on climate change or Meaning related topics for school educators. However, the Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (2018) briefly mentions the development of teacher resources in line with the new curriculum for resilient schools. Examples of how this could be done were not found at the time of this review.

Waste-related actions under the Low Emission Development Strategy 2021-2050 (LEDS, 2021) highlight the training of teachers for ensuring long term awareness among the youth. It states that teachers need to undergo technical training so they are equipped to conduct climate-related lessons through new mediums. It also establishes linkages with the Tonga Accelerate Resilience Programme to provide students with employment opportunities after the completion of their studies.

According to the Third  National Communication (2019), an unspecified number of teachers actively participated in the Department of Climate Change awareness programmes in 2017. They were planting trees contributed to climate mitigation and adaptation.

III) Climate change in higher education

The post-secondary, or higher, education infrastructure is evolving in Tonga and only exists in limited fields, such as agriculture, medicine and teaching through diplomas, certificates, training, and degrees. Many Tongan students travel overseas, especially to New Zealand or Australia, to receive their post-secondary education. Until 2020, there were only two accredited universities in Tonga, the University of the South Pacific (USP) and Christ’s University in the Pacific. While the USP provides a list of programmes offered in Tonga, further information is not available in the public domain. The Christ University programmes have a core science focus. In 2023, Tonga National University was established in line with legal mandate under the Tonga National University Bill (2021). The university has a hybrid model to deliver its classes, and is a merger of six government-owned higher education institutions, including the Tonga Institute of Higher Education. It is set to offer academic as well as vocational study programmes. More details on the university and its programmes were not available at the time of this review.

The MEIDECC, in collaboration with the University of the South Pacific (USP), provides scholarships to 20 students at the USP Campus in Tonga as part of the Climate Resilient Sector Project (CRSP) of the Asian Development Bank. The scholarships focused on tackling a range of climate change-related issues. They offer the selected students the opportunity to undertake undergraduate environmental and marine science studies at the USP Tonga Campus. This was followed by five postgraduate diplomas and four Master’s degree programmes, as mentioned in the Third National Communication (2019). 

The tertiary education branch of the Tonga Government, the Tonga Institute of Higher Education, offers various programmes ranging from accounting, journalism, computer science and tourism. Details of the programmes provided were not found during this review, and specific environment or climate change-related programmes were not part of the list. The government has a Post-Secondary e-learning portal, which forms part of the Distance Education and Communication Center and operates under the umbrella of the Ministry of Education and Training. The portal offers courses in line with the classroom programmes such as agriculture sciences and accounting.

IV) Climate change in training and adult learning

Policy frameworks, such as the Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 (2015), Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016), and Tonga Strategic Roadmap for Emergency and Disaster Risk Management 2021 – 2023 (2021), highlight the importance of training and capacity-building for multiple stakeholders with the aim of mainstreaming climate and disaster risk resilience approaches across all training programmes and processes.

The government’s Tonga Institute of Science and Technology and Tonga Maritime Polytechnic Institute run skill-building and vocational programmes in practical areas such as marine, catering, automotive, carpentry, electricity and plumbing. Although the training infrastructure is available online and offline, the current programmes do not focus on climate change, the environment or sustainable development.

The Tonga National Qualifications and Accreditation Board (TNQAB) facilitates skilling and community education programmes, including sewing, textiles and counselling. The list of accredited programmes was not accessible at the time of writing. The TNQAB initiated a Tonga Skills Programme, which concluded in 2021 and consisted of policy reform, skills development, and supply and delivery. Activities include inclusivity for people with disabilities, trades training, handicraft manufacturing, and the training of TVET trainers. International Skills Training to produce quality trainers was a 12-day programme conducted for 17 trainers, jointly funded by the Australia Pacific Training Coalition, the Tonga Business Enterprise Centre, and public and private technical training institutions. The programme built participants’ capacity to significantly contribute to the TVET sector, to produce quality graduates with skills in demand by various local industries. Climate change and environment-related training programmes are not included. Additionally, the Tonga Resource Platform was planned to be launched in late 2021 by the Australian Government to provide continued support for skill development and reform the skilling sector in Tonga. An update on this platform was not available during this profile development.

The Third National Communication (2019) mentions that a training programme was conducted by Tonga’s Meteorology Department in 2016 for Tupou College students to assist in the installation of weather stations on the campus. More details about the programme were not found during the review.

A climate change adaptation media training was hosted for government officials in 2021 to allow them to develop and refine messages during the launch of the government’s climate change portal. The workshop included government participants drafting key messages on climate adaptation in line with the priority action points in the Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018) to showcase how these messages would be delivered in an interview setting with journalists. Another workshop was hosted in 2022 by the MEIDECC for media personnel, associations and outlets to enhance their understanding of the climate change impacts in Tonga so that they can help to promote coverage of climate change-related issues. A one-day orientation workshop on the National Monitoring and Evaluation System of the Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018) was hosted by MEIDECC in 2020 to raise awareness and detail the standard operating procedures of the plan among the line ministries of Tonga. The participants learned about the concepts, structure and function of the plan’s Monitoring and Evaluation System and its linkages to climate and disaster-resilient development, related decision-making and resource mobilization.

A USAID-supported training programme was launched in 2019 to boost the country’s resilience to climate change and natural disasters. The programme is meant for local government and CSOs to effectively involve themselves in climate resilience monitoring and evaluation activities of the Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018). The course was delivered in partnership with the University of the South Pacific. No further updates could be retrieved during this review.

In 2022, heads of government departments and planners participated in a two-day training programme on human mobility and climate change. The workshop aimed at building participants’ skills in identifying actions to reduce disaster displacement risks, effectively preparing for displacement, and meeting the needs of displaced people through holistic and coordinated government planning. The training was conducted under the aegis of the Pacific Response to Disaster Displacement (PRDD) Project.

Under the Capacity Building on Climate Resilience in the Pacific (CBCRP-PCCC) initiative, virtual and in-person training programmes were organized for government officials in 2022. The training programmes were aimed at enhancing climate resilience and rural communities’ access to safe water, with a focus on the most vulnerable populations with limited or no access to safe drinking water. Participants learned about climate risks, vulnerabilities in relation to rural water access, and innovative approaches, technical solutions, and community-based management of water.

A two-day media briefing and workshop on communicating climate change adaptation was organized in 2021 by the NAP Global Network and Department of Climate Change. The workshop focused on building a strong understanding of climate change adaptation, government’s strategies to build climate resilience of Tongans, and knowledge development for communicating key messages to specific target groups through different communication channels. A list of recommendations to communicate climate change in the country was also published.

The Tonga Community Development Trust (TCDT) is an indigenous CSO involved in building vulnerable communities’ capacity in a number of different areas. The trust has facilitated training programmes on sustainable rainwater harvesting, targeted at women for them have a better understanding of rainwater collection methods, raise water quality standards and promote the sustainable use of rainwater. The TCDT also conducted regional, national and community training under its Disaster Preparedness: Coping Communities initiative to promote traditional coping mechanisms and advocate for actions to foster community-based resilience. 

Training and capacity-building form a major part of the Low Emission Development Strategy 2021-2050 (LEDS, 2021), especially on energy and waste. The strategy states that: ‘Education, training and capacity building are fundamental to the transformation of Tonga’s traditional fossil-fuel based electricity system to a new, renewable electricity system’ (p. 36). The strategy commits to supporting the creation of a qualified workforce including environmentalists and data scientists, as well as through TVET.

The Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018) aims to improve training options for promoting skills development through domestic training institutions and mobilizing external training opportunities. It aims specifically at capacity-building in resilience in government ministries, civil society and the private sector, and training communities on climate change and disaster risks. However, climate change-focused training activities do not form a significant part of the national plans and reports, including in the Voluntary National Review (2019) and the Nationally Determined Contribution (2020). 

Many diverse training programmes were conducted in the country for multiple stakeholders, as highlighted in the Third  National Communication (2019). These include programmes on ozone layer protection, project monitoring training for officers, and community-level training on climate resilience, with a focus on climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, as part of the Climate Resilient Sector Project (CRSP). Training was also organized for town officers on the application process of the Climate Change Trust Fund to build an understanding of the community needs and to develop projects on climate change and the fund disbursement mechanism. Similar  training was also organized for members of parliament for the fund’s effective dissemination and implementation through their respective constituencies. A youth training programme on mangroves was conducted in 2017 under the Adapting to Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Project (EU-GIZ ACSE). The programme formed a part of the project’s community-level youth engagement activities to strengthen the green buffer zone through a mangrove rehabilitation and replantation programme.

The Pacific Climate Change Science Program is developed to assist decision-makers and planners in 14 Pacific island countries and East Timor, including Tonga, to promote a better understanding of how the climate and oceans have changed and how they may continue to change in the future.


I) Climate change and public awareness

Since 2013, the Department of Climate Change has hosted an annual week-long National Climate Change Awareness Week on a number of climate change themes. The programme is conducted to emphasize the disastrous impacts of climate change in the country and to educate and engage people on prevention measures. The 2013 programme was called ‘Think and Act to Save Tonga’s Environment’ and in 2017 it was called ‘Climate Change is Here. Let’s Act Now!’ ‘Building a Resilient Tonga’ was the theme chosen for both the 2021 and 2022 awareness weeks. Activities range from planting trees, interviews, exhibitions, youth dialogues, video screening, competitions and the dissemination of communication products such as brochures. For example, brochures, T-shirts and a two-minute video are produced in English and the Tongan language as part of the Regional Pacific NDC Hub, to increase awareness and understanding of the Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) among decision-makers, stakeholders and communities. The goal is to strengthen the collective efforts towards the achievement of the targets. 

The Department of Climate Change’s 2018 Communications Plan outlines approaches and activities to raise awareness of climate change and associated risks and targets the general public, government agencies, communities, schools and higher academic institutions, and civil society. The plan develops key messages with strong slogans such as ‘Climate change is real and the effects are long term’, and communication products such as photographs and videos for each of the stakeholders, we as providing a calendar of events.

Awareness programmes have been organized under various initiatives across the country. For example, community-level awareness activities on coastal conservation were conducted under the Coastal Protection Trials Project Adapting to Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Project (EU-GIZ ACSE), which aims at resilient infrastructure trials in the six village communities of Tonga. According to the Voluntary National Review (2019), a WASH programme supported by the Australian Government, Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission and the European Union was targeted at communities and children, aiming to raise awareness about the importance of hand-washing to protect them against climate change-induced vector-borne diseases.

Community-level awareness raising is a strong focus in the Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016) and Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018), aiming to develop climate resilience through the involvement of civil society. The NAP mentions that a comprehensive communication strategy would be developed within six months of the plan. However, no strategy was found during the preparation of the review. The strategy is supposed to focus on improving coordination linkages within island communities, developing awareness campaigns and materials, and maximizing the use of broadcasts.

The Tonga National Youth Congress (TNYC) works for the welfare of the youth through programmes that foster responsibility, citizenship, community service and leadership. The not-for-profit organization runs programmes for youth on environmental awareness, education and skills-building. TNYC is actively implementing health, water and livelihood projects, including nature camps, youth green dialogues, the development of a green code of conduct and school outreach activities. TNYC’s campaign against plastic pollution engaged over 500 members from across the country. The Civil Society Forum of Tonga, a CSO umbrella body, works with the TNYC on building resilient, sustainable agriculture and fostering community and government dialogue on local climate change impacts and response measures. 

The Tonga Strategic Roadmap for Emergency and Disaster Risk Management 2021-2023 (2021) identifies limited awareness among communities on climate change and related risks as a major challenge in disaster risk preparedness and management. the Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 (2015) focuses on creating public awareness on energy saving measures, cleaner and sustainable environment, and the implementation of policies. The policy outcomes of the Tonga National Youth Policy & Strategic Plan of action 2021-2025 (n. d.) mentions one objective as being to ‘Increase awareness on environmental issues and practices amongst youth through family, community groups, religious institutions, school curriculum, government ministries, non-government organizations and private sectors programs’ (p. 28)

The Low Emission Development Strategy 2021-2050 (LEDS, 2021) states that ‘a resilient, sustainable and educated Tonga’ could be achieved through effective education, awareness raising and the promotion of traditional knowledge on energy and sustainable waste management mechanisms. The strategy highlights that ‘community awareness, knowledge and capacity building are essential to gaining country-wide support for the ambitious trajectory of Tonga’s electricity system’ (p. 30). The strategy focuses on short- and long-term awareness-raising on waste management, together with the development of a dedicated communication strategy to be implemented through events, community and religious leaders, social media, and radio and television. The strategy aims to change behaviour on environmental issues and promote the ‘reduce, reuse and recycle’ principles of waste management.

The revised edition of Tonga’s Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) emphasizes adaptation activities and reducing emissions from Energy, Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU), and industrial sectors. The document identifies a lack of awareness as one of the primary barriers to adaptation. Improving awareness of populations, conducting consultations, and raising awareness of the decision-makers are enabling actions targeted under the NDC.

II) Climate change and public access to information

The Ministry of Communications, part of the MEIDECC, is the key communication agency that supports the national policy objectives and makes public information readily available, including climate change-related matters. For example, the ministry implemented the Tonga National Early Warning System project supported by the Japanese Government. Its main objective is to prevent disasters and participate in environmental and climate change measures. Interventions include the swift transmission of warnings and safety information, an emergency radio communication system, and an early warning system across the country. The project also aims at improving the broadcasting infrastructure under the Tonga Broadcasting Commission.

The Tonga Government created the National Climate Change Portal to host climate-related news, data, information and progress on climate change projects, to make climate information more accessible to the public. All information related to climate change, disaster resilience, resources, projects, stakeholders and knowledge products in the country are made publicly available through this portal. Initially supported by GIZ’s Coping with climate change in the Pacific Island Region initiative in 2013, the portal currently operates with assistance from the Pacific iCLIM Project and the Climate Resilient Sector Project. The Communications and Information Division of the Department of Climate Change manages, maintains and updates the portal’s climate change information system, resources and databases. 

The Tonga Meteorological Services is the primary agency providing data and information on agriculture, health, fisheries and the climate at the national level. The main goals of its Climate Services Division are to reduce communities’ vulnerability, advance Tonga’s key development goals, mainstream climate information in decision-making, and strengthen user engagement through better and more effective provision of climate information. The division provides detailed climate summaries to different islands of the country, and data requests can be submitted on the website to obtain climate-related information.

The country also has the national Tonga Broadcasting Commission, as a one-stop host for radio, news, and television programmes that help disseminate important information, including that related to climate change and disasters.  

Recognizing that the climate change impacts in Tonga are to be more frequently felt with more extreme and unpredictable weather events, the 2022 article by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) notes that Tonga is developing a mobile applications community and response system (MACRES) to increase the country’s capacity to disseminate, share and respond to risk-related information, advisories and warnings. The MACRES would be developed by the Tonga Meteorological Services and the permanent representative to the WMO through its Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems initiative. The people of Tonga have also demanded an improved and more extensive warning system, which is currently being created. 

The Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018) and Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016) focus on increasing access to the information within government, the private sector, communities and private households through web portals and the creation of information hubs. Data and information research, monitoring and management form a core objective of the NAP, and related activities include the development of protocols, enhancing the coordination mechanism, capacity needs assessment, research, and the documentation of climate change data, information, and traditional knowledge. There is a specific promise to establish a ‘Research for Resilience Centre’ but no further information could be found during the preparation of the review. It is important to note that the Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) does not specifically target activities for increased access to climate information.

III) Climate change and public participation

Most of Tonga’s national policies and strategies were developed through consultative processes and other means of public participation, such as workshops. 

Tonga has a National Youth Strategy and Action Plan (2021-25) (n.d.) that sets out youth-focused steps to be undertaken at the national level and calls for improved knowledge of environmental and climate challenges for the youth. It also states that ‘urgent action is required to combat climate change before its impact becomes an inevitable condition of young people’s continued existence’ (p. 13). The strategy focuses on mainstreaming youth issues at the national level and identifying them as critical stakeholders. The focus is on improving the quantity and quality of capacity-building programmes on climate change and related impacts, increasing awareness of environmental problems, and strengthening partnerships among key youth stakeholders, village councils and the 18 constituency councils. The strategy also emphasizes the active participation of the youth in environment conservation activities and politics. 

The Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 encourages the development of life skills and good values in the youth of Tonga through the promotion of disaster risk management and youth development programmes. Other national documents recognize the youth as a key stakeholder in building the country’s climate resilience capacities and place emphasis on youth engagement at various levels of planning and implementation. These include the: Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016), the Tonga Strategic Roadmap for Emergency and Disaster Risk Management 2021 – 2023 (2021), the Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) and the Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018). The Low Emission Development Strategy 2021-2050 (LEDS, 2021) was prepared through a series of strategic dialogues with key stakeholders from government line ministries, public enterprises, NGOs, youth groups, faith-based organizations and the private sector. 

The Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016) was prepared through widespread consultation workshops, which involved stakeholders such as government ministries, NGOs civil society representatives, statutory boards, and women and youth groups. ‘Community ownership, stakeholder participation, and collaboration’ is one of the policy’s guiding principles. 

Similarly, the Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 (2015) emphasizes the participation of vulnerable groups across different development agendas. Among the five principles taken into account for inclusivity and sustainability of the framework, the use of ‘participatory consultative approaches with relevant stakeholders, both inside and outside of government – to improve participation, inclusion and coordination’ (p. 82) is mentioned. 

Planning and implementation for participatory village emergency and disaster risk management are mentioned as key outcomes of the Tonga Strategic Roadmap for Emergency and Disaster Risk Management 2021 – 2023 (2021). The roadmap was developed through a consultation process, and sector strengths and challenges were identified by the stakeholders involved in the consultation, which include government, civil society, the private sector and development partners.

The Prime Minister’s Office led the consultation and holding of workshops for developing the Voluntary National Review (2019) towards Sustainable Development Goals in consultation with national stakeholders, including CSOs. They were conducted between March and May 2019. As a result of this process, the report notes that the Tonga Government now actively engages CSOs in collective decision-making processes on sustainable development such as public dialogues and consultation meetings. The report also mentions that locally driven messages to support the implementation process were identified in consultation with various stakeholders.

Regarding underwater safety planning, the Third National Communication (2019) states that ‘community participation in developing the plan is more than likely to foster ownership of the plan, its implementation, monitoring, and troubleshooting of issues and/or concerns relating to the water supply’ (p. 127). It also emphasizes public participation in issues affecting coral reefs and the participation of fishermen.

The updated Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) was developed through a consultative process involving the engagement of stakeholders, including government officials, technical experts and civil society representatives. Members of the technical team of the Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018) and a group of stakeholders who attended the national NDC workshops and consultations also contributed to the revision process. The NDC mentions explicitly that ‘Tonga regards coordination between and consultation of all relevant stakeholders as a prerequisite to developing its NDC and its effective implementation’ (p. 19). Further, the NDC looks forward to high-level consultations with decision-makers on energy issues and climate change. The Tonga National Youth Policy & Strategic Plan of action 2021-2025 (n. d.) notes that ‘all relevant youth stakeholders must promote and support the active participation of youth in the preservation of the environment through rebuilding Tonga’s national environment’ (p. 13).


I) Country monitoring

Tonga conducts various reviews in partnership with international organizations, and monitoring frameworks are also presented in the country’s policy documents; however, climate change-related indicators are not common.

A 2020 Technical Assessment report-Climate Change Policy Assessment, developed by the International Monetary Fund, recommends an integrated approach towards the monitoring and issuing warnings of natural hazards, thus improving institutional capacities on monitoring. It specifically calls for effective monitoring and reporting of climate change funds. Climate change communication and education are not part of the assessment.

A 2022 case study by the Humanitarian Advisory Group in Tonga explores opportunities for the integration of the implications of climate change and adaptation and disaster risk reduction into local practices and at the community level. While seeking to capture local best practices and ways to strengthen existing models, the study recommends that there is monitoring and evaluating of the plans and opportunities for community members, as a way of providing feedback. The monitoring of climate change education was not explicitly mentioned. 

UN Women, together with the Tonga Statistics Department, which generates country-level statistics from census and surveys and consolidates administrative records, has initiated a gender and environment survey. The objectives were to assess the connections between environmental issues and gender, reduce the data gaps, and assist in improving the levels of women’s knowledge and response-preparedness in relation to natural disasters and climate change. The report and further updates on this were unavailable at the time of writing.

The Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (NAP, 2018) identifies monitoring and evaluation as critical areas for implementing the NAP. It mentions that a plan will be developed, incorporating the outcomes of two progress reviews and annual review forums. A 2021 country-level assessment to evaluate the progress made by the Joint National Action Plan 2 on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management 2018–2028 (2018) included three key indicators: mainstreaming climate change approaches, knowledge management, and capacity development. The assessment found that the knowledge and capacity indicators were among the least integrated sub-objectives in the planning processes, and that the least progress was made against three indicators from April to June 2021.

The Voluntary National Review (2019) mentions that a tracker database was developed to establish and strengthen the national monitoring systems on the Sustainable Development Goals that map key policies, plans, and budgetary documents. Under SDG 4, the report presents the requirement for an Education Management Information System (EMIS) to better inform decisions. Based on the review findings, the report also elaborates key considerations for Tongan stakeholders for improved implementation. These include effective M&E systems for measuring the impact of all initiatives and improvements in the broader use of monitoring reports by the community and civil society. SDG 4 and SDG 13 do not cover climate change communication and education-related indicators. 

An objective of the Tonga Climate Change Policy: A Resilient Tonga by 2035 (2016) is monitoring: ‘to develop fully operational monitoring systems, focusing in particular on groundwater, soil health, and coastal monitoring, and a comprehensive climate early warning system’ (p. 11). The objective does not specifically include climate change communication and education. 

Facilitating coordinated planning and monitoring progress was the core objective of the Tonga Strategic Roadmap for Emergency and Disaster Risk Management 2021 – 2023 (2021). The roadmap identifies six priority outcomes specified in the stakeholder consultation process. The roadmap establishes a Roadmap Monitoring Framework, which includes work plans and review mechanisms. The Tonga Strategic Development Framework 2015-2025 (2015) also has a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework that provides education access. However, the performance monitoring indicators in both these documents do not include climate change communication and education.

The Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) includes an objective, which is to: ‘conduct a quarterly, biannual or annual monitoring and evaluation for all NDC sectors implementing the targets’ (p. 49). No specific indicators are mentioned. Further,the Regional Pacific NDC Hub, working with Tonga’s Department of Climate Change, completed a review of Tonga’s commitments from 2015 and provided recommendations for the Nationally Determined Contribution (2020). Currently, the hub is working on Tonga’s Monitoring Reporting and Verification system and on the preparation of an implementation roadmap and investment plan.

II) MECCE Project Monitoring

The Monitoring and Evaluating Climate Communication and Education (MECCE) Project reviewed the country’s Education Policy Framework 2004-19 (2004) for references to ‘climate change,’ ‘sustainability,’ ‘biodiversity,’ and the ‘environment.’ The framework does not include ‘climate change’ at all, and the term ‘environment’ (as used in the context of the physical environment is also not part of the framework. The term ‘sustainability’ is referenced 13 times, but only in financial and systemic aspects. There is no mention of the term ‘biodiversity.’

This profile was reviewed by: 

Chiara Collette, Program Manager, Friends of Tonga Inc.

Karen Stone, Director, Vava’u Environmental Protection Association

Lori Osmundsen, Compliance & Environmental Officer, Friends of Tonga Inc.

Michael P. Hassett, President, Friends of Tonga Inc.

Uili Lou, President, OHAI Incorporated