CCE Country Profile

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Table of Contents

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I) Climate change context

Mozambique is a Southeast African country with a long coastline of 2,700 km along the Indian Ocean. The country borders Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Eswatini and has a total land area of 799 380 km². The governance structure consists of a centralized system where the central government, situated in the capital Maputo, is solely responsible for establishing policies, including those relating to the environment and climate change. However, responsibility for the actual implementation of government initiatives is entrusted to local governments in provinces and districts. 

According to the Climate Change Knowledge Portal, Mozambique is vulnerable to flooding, droughts and cyclones. The country’s Second National Communication (2022) indicates that climate change adversely impacts Mozambique. This is primarily due to a substantial population residing in low-lying coastal areas that are vulnerable to flooding, as well as the majority of inhabitants depending on small-scale agriculture, which is frequently affected by droughts and floods. 

According to the Global Carbon Atlas (2021), Mozambique is a low-carbon emitting country. The 2021 data shows that Mozambique, which has a population of around 33 million people, emits 0.2 tCO2/person. According to the Second National Communication (2022), the biggest polluting industries in the country are the land use, land-use change and forestry sectors (61%) followed by the energy sector (18%), and industrial processes (3%).

Mozambique joined the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1995 as a Non-Annex I, or non-industrialized, party. The country signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2005. Mozambique has signed (2016) and ratified (2018) the Paris Agreement.

II) Relevant government agencies

Climate change 

Many government ministries, departments and agencies are involved in climate change actions. For example, the Ministry of Land and Environment is responsible for land and environmental management. Through its National Directorate of Climate Change (DMC) and as part of meeting international climate commitments, there is a specific focus on climate change, especially adaptation and mitigation. The ministry (which is also recognized as the Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs) houses the National Directorate of Environmental Management, which plays a key role in climate change activities. The ministry is also the Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) Focal Point for Mozambique, according to the UNFCCC

As per the Second National Communication (2022), the National Directorate of Climate Change is responsible for coordinating the Inter-institutional Group on Climate Change (GIIMC). This consists of representatives of relevant ministries and institutions, as well as representatives of non-governmental actors, the private sector, civil society, academia, and the media.

The Second National Communication (2022) notes that the country is supported by different national agencies to improve their capacity to adapt to and mitigate climate change. For example, the Ministry of Industry and Commerce is responsible for regulating industrial processes in the country as well as generating and tracking data and creating forecasting and statistical indicators needed to monitor its activities. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development plans and executes policies related to agriculture, livestock, agro-forestry plantations and food security. The ministry is the Global Environment Facility’s political and operational focal point in the country. The ministry participated in the development of the Integrated Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Zambezi Watercourse (2022) programme, which includes climate change education and communication initiatives. 

The Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy oversees the country’s mining and power sectors and has a mandate to put in place measures that would reduce pollution to the environment from activities such as coal mining. Regarding renewable energies, the ministry is responsible for establishing the legal framework and modus operandi in this sector, promoting the protection of the environment through the sustainable use of renewable energies. 

The Ministry of the Sea, Inland Water and Fisheries also plays an important role in addressing climate change by promoting policies that support adaptation, such as encouraging the sustainable management of ocean, inland water and fishery resources. In particular, the ministry developed the Blue Economy Development Strategy (2023), which underlines the challenge that climate change presents as well as the importance of achieving a blue economy. To this end, activities to empower fishing communities, increase the resilience of fishing activities and their adaptation to climate change include climate training, awareness campaigns, as well as improving literacy related to the ocean and climate change. 

Mozambique has also established the National Fund for Sustainable Development, which advocates for the adoption of sustainable development models, especially those that take climate change into account. All these agencies share the government’s vision of ensuring sustainable and responsible development of the country, while reducing the risks of climate change, as stipulated in the Second National Communication (2022).

Education and communication 

The Ministry of Education and Human Development is responsible for the basic education systems in Mozambique. Among other roles, the ministry oversees the general school curriculum and professional development activities for teachers. The ministry plays a crucial role in mainstreaming climate change education in the country’s education systems. 

The Ministry of Science and Technology, Higher and Technical Vocational Education is responsible for regulating and coordinating tertiary education. The Ministry of Transport and Communication is responsible for the communication strategies of the country. The Department of Communication and Image falls under this ministry, and it oversees government communications, including on topics related to climate change. There is an emphasis on the use of technologies, such as smartphones, the social media and the internet for people who are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

The Ministry of Land and Environment also carries out environmental and climate change education initiatives. For instance, the ministry has cooperated around the implementation of the Programme on Environmental Education, Communication and Dissemination 2009-2025, which promotes a general understanding of environmental education and mechanisms to incorporate it into society. Moreover, the Polytechnic Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences (IPCTA), which falls under the Ministry of Land and Environment, plays an important role in offering training programmes that provide tools for cooperating on issues such as environmental management, climate change, natural resource management and biodiversity. 

The Centre for Climate Change Knowledge Management works under the purview of the Academy of Sciences from the Ministry of Land and Environment. The centre is a hub for sharing information on climate change, including updates on policies and projects that are under way around the country. The centre provides training programmes on the monitoring and evaluation of climate change and hosts events. In fact, the National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy (2013-2025) regards the Center for Climate Change Knowledge Management as being a key institution to better face climate change, and mentions that it will create training, awareness-raising and educational content about climate change. 

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Youth and Adult Education Association (ASEJANA) develop initiatives on environmental education that include climate change content. The association aims to accelerate the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the region, providing literacy and environmental education through activities such as research, regional projects and community training. ASEJANA also highlights that its objectives are aligned with aspects such as ‘[a]ccess to food from a nutritional perspective looking at the direct impact of climate change on their lives especially on food production and the ancient practice of fire, among other local environmental practices’ (n.p). 

III) Relevant laws, policies, and plans

Climate change 

The 2004 Constitution of the Republic of Mozambique does not specifically mention climate change. Rather, it mandates certain authorities to take action to protect and conserve the environment. The constitution recognizes that the destruction of the environment creates impacts that ultimately infringe people’s basic rights, such as the right to clean water and a healthy environment. 

The National Strategy for Climate Change (2013-2025) is the main policy framework for guiding climate change actions in Mozambique. It highlights actions that different stakeholders, such as small-scale farmers, should undertake to reduce the country’s vulnerability to climate change. These include implementing modernized farming methods and the responsible disposal of waste. The National Biofuels Policy and Strategy (2009) intends to regulate the use of biofuels in the country and encourage biofuel practices that do not harm the environment. 

In 2013, the country presented the National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy, which consolidates Mozambique’s climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts. The strategy includes reducing climate change vulnerabilities in the country and improving living conditions. This would happen by implementing concrete and cross-cutting measures, such as capacity building initiatives, strengthening the institutional framework and developing and improving the level of climate change knowledge. The aim is to achieve sustainable development through high levels of participation by all social, environmental and economic actors and sectors. 

The Five-Year Program (2020-2024) approved under Resolution 15/2020, aims to improve the well-being and the quality of life of the Mozambican population. The programme seeks to reduce poverty, and gender and social inequalities, as well as to promote peace and stimulate job creation. The programme identifies climate change as a high priority, aiming to reduce the vulnerability of communities to climate change, and to strengthen capacities and risk management in different parts of the country and in different economic sectors. 

The country submitted the Updated First Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-2025) highlighting the country’s situation in the face of climate change. The document highlights the efforts that are being made to enhance the environmental/climate institutional framework, as well as to increase public participation and engagement with local and Indigenous communities. It also mentions a commitment to gender sensitivity in all its programmes. 

Education and communication 

In 2018, the Government of Mozambique presented Law 18/2018, which establishes the legal framework for the national education system in the country. The law contains some general principles, including the development of inclusive education and culture and the promotion of a responsible citizenship with environmental values. The law also promotes teacher training, capacity building and research. 

The country’s Education Strategic Plan (2020-2029) develops the vision of a citizenry that has knowledge, skills, and cultural, moral and civic values, and which is able to contribute to the development of a cohesive society that adapts appropriately to the constantly changing world. The plan emphasizes that the country faces challenges due to recurring natural disasters and extreme weather conditions, which have a significant impact on the local population. It notes that school-going students are particularly affected. To address this, it states that it is important to improve school infrastructure so that it is more inclusive in relation to gender, disability and special needs, and that schools develop resilience to face these challenges. According to the plan, this can be achieved by updating the School Charter and implementing a well-funded plan for infrastructure development, rehabilitation and maintenance, while prioritizing standards of inclusion and resilience. For its preparation and implementation, the Education Strategic Plan takes into account various national policies and strategies, including the National Strategy for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change (2013-2025). This identifies key areas for action that can be taken to reduce vulnerability to climate, and the Five-Year Program (2020-2024), which outlines the government’s objectives and priorities, including those in the education sector. 

Following the principles of Law 18/2018, the Elementary School Curriculum Plan (2020) aims to cover content in areas such as communication, maths and the natural and social sciences by presenting relevant knowledge and work skills, and promoting attitudes and beliefs that encourage social participation. The curriculum sets the expectation that students will strengthen their socio-cultural development. This is to be achieved by taking action that protects the environment, developing and demonstrating responsible attitudes towards natural disasters, and using natural resources sensibly and consciously.

The Secondary Education Curriculum Plan (2022) took into account the SDGs when it was being developed, as well as other national and international plans and documents, such as the Human Development Index. The plan outlines guiding principles such as an inclusive education, teaching and learning that is oriented towards the development of life skills, and interdisciplinary education. To this end, the curriculum introduces transversal topics such as a culture of peace, human rights, gender and equality, education for sustainable development and the preservation of the cultural heritage. The curriculum also includes aspects related to environment protection and climate change, mainly through the social and natural science subjects. 

In its Updated Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-2025), Mozambique recognizes the pivotal role of communication in climate change adaptation. Different legal and policy frameworks have thus been put in place to facilitate effective adaptation communication. For example, the Second National Communication (2022) reported that the mediums of radio, newspapers and social networks are critical outlets for the dissemination of information about climate change; early warnings of impending cyclones and storms are quickly aired on radio and posted on social networks.

IV) Terminology used for climate communication and education

‘Climate change education and climate change communication are not explicitly used as terms in most of the climate change frameworks for Mozambique, such as the National Communication and the Education Strategic Plan. For example, the Second National Communication (2022) reports on climate change education as ‘climate change in education’. The term is referenced more for training people about their responsibilities in climate change adaptation and awareness. Similarly, in the Second National Communication (2022) there is no clearly defined terminology for climate change communication. Instead, climate change communication is described as ‘public awareness of climate change’.

The section on geography in the Secondary Education Curriculum Plan (2022) highlights the correlation between environmental impacts and human activity. The curriculum expects that students will ‘understand the interdependent relationships between nature and human activity, taking into account cultural diversity and changes in the environment’ (p. 26). 

Climate policies such as the National Strategy for Climate Change (2013-2025) defines the following key terms: ‘actions of adaptation’, ‘adaptation’, ‘informal settlements’, ‘adaptive capacity’, ‘low carbon development’, ‘sustainable development’, ‘green economy’, ‘adverse effects of climate change’, ‘greenhouse effects’, ‘greenhouse gases’ (GHGs), ‘mitigation’, ‘climate change’, ‘global warming’, ‘resilience’, ‘awareness’, ‘carbon sequestration’ and ‘climate vulnerability’. ‘Climate change’ is defined as ‘any alteration in the climate that is directly or indirectly attributed to human activity (which changes the global composition of the atmosphere) and which is additional to the natural variability of the climate observed over comparable periods of time’ (p. 8). 

V) Budget for climate communication and education

Mozambique has allocated considerable financial resources to climate change education and communication. Major financial allocations are embedded in broader environmental programmes. The country spends 17.9% of its annual budget on education. According to the Second National Communication (2022), ‘the main funding sources established and operating in the area of climate change in Mozambique include the State Budget (OE), the National Research Fund (FNI), the National Fund for Sustainable Development (FNDS), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and the Adaptation Fund (AF)’. 

The Second National Communication (2022, p. 184) reports that the government’s plan is: ‘strengthening the capacities of agricultural producers to deal with climate change, aiming to develop the capacities of agricultural producers, particularly those in the family sector, to deal with climate variability and change, with an estimated budget of US$2,500,000’. The Green Climate Fund is currently supporting 30 projects in Mozambique with a projected financial commitment of US$ 30.7 million, but some of these projects are multinational in nature and the funding is divided accordingly.

According to the Updated First Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-205) the Government of Mozambique faces a number of barriers in relation to finance, technology transfer and training, and capacity building. The document notes that the implementation of the actions related to adaptation and emission outlined in the Nationally Determined Contribution are conditional on international climate support. An example of this is the funding (around US $26.5 million [€25 million]) that the country will receive from the Government of Belgium: the money will go towards a Programme to reduce the impact of climate change and energy transition between 2023 and 2027. The Nationally Determined Contribution document also notes that for the country to be able to develop and execute strategic actions in climate change education and communication, it would need a total budget of US $976 million.


I) Climate change in pre-primary, primary, and secondary education

The country’s Education Strategic Plan (2020-2029) notes that the general principle of education should be in harmony with the constitution of the country, aiming for the ‘promotion of responsible and democratic citizenship, patriotic awareness, and the values ​​of peace, dialogue, family and environment’ (p. 32.) However, as far as the Education Strategic Plan (2020) is concerned, there is no particular focus on climate change for all levels of basic education – pre-primary, primary and secondary education. A learning area on the environment is included for pre-primary education. 

In the Elementary School Curriculum Plan (2020) natural sciences is provided as a subject with a focus on promoting knowledge for the preservation of the environment. There are no further policies or curriculum frameworks available for pre-primary and primary levels that could be evidence of the mainstreaming of climate change into the curriculum. 

Regarding secondary education, the Secondary Education Curriculum Plan (2022) implements cognitive, social and emotional, and action-learning dimensions to include environmental protection and conservation, as well as climate change aspects through the first cycle (grades 7-9) and second cycle (grades 10-12). For instance, in the learning of biology for the second cycle, students are encouraged to reflect on the importance of protecting and conserving the school environment through individual and collective actions. They are also encouraged to take action by disseminating and applying environmental conservation techniques in the community. Climate change and sustainable development aspects are also included in the curriculum, for example, in geography for the first and second cycles, students are encouraged to understand topography and climatic phenomena, to understand and value the concept of sustainable development, and to seek solutions for global issues. In addition, students are encouraged to ‘use knowledge of geography to understand the factors influencing climate change’ (p.30).

The National Strategy for Climate Change (2013-2025) promotes adaptation and mitigation in relation to climate change by strengthening supporting sectors such as the education sector. In particular, the strategy aims to empower learners through training, education and awareness-raising at all levels. The strategy also mentions that the Center for Climate Change Knowledge Management will ensure and coordinate the education, capacity building, and training components of the strategy, including the development and inclusion of climate content in educational programmes, from preschool right through to the postgraduate level.

The Second National Communication (2022) notes that despite the country’s commitment and programmes in the education sector, the actual implementation of climate change education remains a challenge. The Updated First Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-205) stresses how the country implemented the Interinstitutional Group on Climate Change to address the cross-cutting feature of climate change. This means that diverse groups and sectors in Mozambique (such as the public, private, civil society, and Indigenous communities) need to cooperate to adapt to and mitigate climate change through cross-cutting actions, including climate change communication and education initiatives. For instance, it is expected that climate change issues will be mainstreamed into curricula from grades 1 to 11.

II) Climate change in teacher training and teacher resources

The Teacher Policy and Implementation Strategy (2023-2032) is the guiding framework for teacher education and practice in Mozambique. The document articulates areas of focus for teacher training and for teaching in schools. However, nothing related to climate change education appears in the framework. 

Under the Ministry of Education and Human Development, the National Directorate of Teacher Training was set to manage teacher training through curriculum development, professional development, and monitoring and evaluation. However, none of its mandates relates to climate change education. 

The Secondary Education Curriculum Plan (2022), which includes environmental and climate change aspects along the content, stresses that the effective implementation of a plan requires coordination among teachers around work in the classroom and curricular activities.

The Ministry of Education and Human Development offers materials for teacher training such as the Didactic Manual Portuguese Language-Second Language-Primary School Teacher Training and Adult Education, which aims to facilitate the planning and evaluation of teaching and learning processes, for both primary school teaching and adult education. The manual includes suggestions, activities and ways to encourage students to read and understand themes such as human rights, hygiene, nutrition, environmental protection, and the promotion of female leadership. In particular, the manual invites teachers to develop an activity in the classroom for the comprehension and interpretation of texts about climate change.

Within the ministry, the School Book and Teaching Materials Management Department oversees the production and distribution of books and resources to schools. However, there is not a specific mandate for recommending the production of books and materials that respond to contemporary issues such as climate change education.

Mozambique has teacher training institutions, known as IFPs (Instituto de Formaçao de Professores) which are found throughout the country mainly for pre-primary and primary education. The Universidade Pedagógica de Maputo, which offers courses in a number of disciplines, including earth and environmental sciences for primary and secondary school teachers, is the largest government teacher education institution. 

Some international aid also supports teacher training in the form of teaching materials related to environmental education. In particular, the Italian Institute Oikos, in collaboration with the Mozambican organizations Environment Childhood Organization (ECO), the Quirimbas National Park (PNQ), and the Primary Schools of the Ibo District, developed the Manual of Environmental Education-For Primary School Teachers. The aim is to promote environmental awareness and knowledge. The manual includes three chapters related to the environment: ‘The balance of the environment’; ‘The balance is at risk: climate change’; and iii) ‘Preserving our ecosystems’. The second chapter explains how the climate is affected by natural and human factors, with a focus on global warming, the greenhouse effect and harmful fishing practices. Throughout the manual, climate change is explained to teachers, as well as how they can implement interactive activities that can effectively illustrate key concepts, such as the greenhouse effect.

III) Climate change in higher education

Mozambique has made efforts to implement climate change in formal education. In particular, the National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy (2013-2025) targets academia and national institutions to develop and include climate change themes in curricula and training in both formal and informal education. 

The Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education regulates tertiary education. As noted in the Second National Communication (2022), the ministry is a key institution for climate change adaptation and mitigation, as it is responsible for including climate change content in teaching and promoting research on related subjects.

The Universidade Eduardo Mondlane is the biggest tertiary institution in the country, offering a number of academic programmes, including on climate change and the environment at all levels of study. For example, the Faculty of Education offers an undergraduate degree in environmental education, which includes a focus on sustainability, biodiversity and climate change. 

The Second National Communication (2022) notes that while education institutions in Mozambique are making considerable efforts in climate change education, there is insufficient research that focuses on climate change education, due to a lack of expertise and resources.

The Center for Climate Change Knowledge Management covers various thematic areas related to climate change. These are addressed through a climate change network made up of a number of specialized institutions, including national research institutes, research centres and higher education institutions. The National Strategy for Climate Change (2013-2025) notes that this network links different sectors, thus facilitating the development of common objectives such as: responding to specific research needs, creating a body of climate change knowledge, and compiling data and information to support the country on climate change issues.

According to the Updated First Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-205), the Government of Mozambique aims to promote climate change studies and research that is focused on reducing climate risk and potential for low-carbon development in the country. It also aims to establish appropriate infrastructure and recruit human capital to support laboratories on research, monitoring and verification of climate change adaptation and mitigation projects. 

IV) Climate change in training and adult learning

The Ministry of Education and Human Development houses the National Directorate of Literary and Adult Education. The directorate is mainly responsible for adult learning in the country. However, there is no mention of a specific mandate related to climate change. 

The Ministry of Land and Environment, on the other hand, has mechanisms in place for climate change and training and adult learning. For example, the ministry is implementing different partnership training and adult learning programmes on climate change, targeting important groups and sectors such as as women and smallholder farmers, who are among the most affected by the impact of climate change. 

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development implements capacity-building initiatives related to climate change. For instance, in August-October 2021, the ministry cooperated with international bodies such as the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) to implement training on good agricultural practices and climate resilience measures. The recipients of the training were farmers from the provinces of Gaza, Sofala and Tete, and around 10,000 people benefited from the training. The training included components on: the importance of sharing climate information and being able to understand weather forecasts to mitigate disaster risks and adapt rural activities; mapping available resources; selecting the most appropriate crops to grow; and pest management. Overall, the programme is expected to reduce agricultural losses and protect the food security and livelihoods of more than 50,000 people.

The non-governmental association ADPP Mozambique develops capacity-building initiatives on quality education, health and well-being, sustainable agriculture, and the environment. The association integrates the prevention and mitigation of climate change into all its projects and programmes, whenever possible. ADPP Mozambique also manages three professional training centres, which offer programmes in agriculture, livestock, construction, business administration, hospitality and tourism, and community development. To date, these centres have trained around 7,200 students, and they have also delivered short courses for about 8,000 people. Training projects that have been implemented by the association include: Ecofish, which trained fishing communities of the Tete province in sustainable resource management; and the Livelihoods and Economic Recovery for Farming Families in Nhamatanda project that was targeted at the agriculture sector in the province of Sofala after the damage and losses caused by the IDAI cyclone. The project’s main objective was to strengthen the resilience of livelihoods and sustainable economic recovery, while promoting inclusion, gender equality and green growth.

Climate policies such as the National Strategy for Climate Change (2013-2025) aim to foster the human resource development so that people are better equipped to face the challenges of climate change. The strategy underlines the importance of a multisectoral approach to implementing the strategy. This includes the development and implementation of capacity-building programmes on climate change for different sectors and communities, with a particular focus on the sustainable use of natural resources. 

One of the major challenges that Mozambique faces in its fight against climate is the great need to strengthen capacity-building activities. The Updated First Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-205) notes that the country will continue to rely on international aid, including for training on climate change issues. In response to this, the NDC also aims to mainstream climate change issues and content into programmes at the technical staff training level. It also aims to formulate and implement a technical-institutional capacity-building plan for implementing the NDC under the Capacity Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) of the Paris Agreement. 


I) Climate change and public awareness

Mozambique has highlighted the role of public awareness as being key to effecting appropriate climate change actions in the country. Specifically, an objective of the National Strategy for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change (2013-2025) is to raise public awareness so that Mozambican citizens can take action in relation to climate change adaptation. The country’s Second National Communication (2022) notes that ‘public awareness activities related to climate change have been developed, albeit in a non-integrated and coordinated manner’ (p. 308) Nonetheless, stakeholders such as the Ministry of Land and Environment and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) are supporting programmes, such as for the production of materials for public awareness on climate change.

Among its transversal actions, the National Strategy for Climate Change (2013-2025) includes raising awareness of the general public, disseminating information on climate change, as well as information about the strategy itself, such as the relevant national and international agreements that it includes. It also notes that the Center for Climate Change Knowledge Management will create content and cooperate on raising climate awareness in the country through its partnerships with other stakeholders. 

To raise awareness on climate change and disaster risk management issues, Mozambique’s Updated Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) seeks to implement a communication and awareness-raising plan for climate change adaptation and mitigation, as well as improving early warning communication systems. The overall aim is to build climate resilience among communities. More details on this, however, were not available at the time of writing. The document mentions that:

(…) the Ministry of Land and Environment has established the holding of a National Climate Change Conference every two years as a forum open to public participation to, among others, share information, experiences and good practices in the area of climate change; promote education and public awareness on issues related to climate change; and, promote the dissemination and discussion of issues relevant to climate change (p. 28).

The National Adaptation Plan (2023) notes that in order to adapt to climate change, public awareness of climate change must be enhanced and there must be innovative approaches to implementing public awareness programmes. One suggested initiative mentioned in the plan concerning public awareness is the ‘[e]stablishment of Knowledge and Awareness Centers on Climate Events.’ (p. 235)

II) Climate change and public access to information

Public access to information has been identified as a crucial factor in ensuring appropriate climate change actions in the country, particularly in relation to adaptation and mitigation. For example, the Second National Communication (2022) notes that if information is readily available, people will be able to make informed decisions about climate events, such as for cyclones, which often hit the country’s coastal regions. 

In line with this, the National Strategy for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change (2013-2025) mandates relevant stakeholders to: ‘Compile and facilitate access to information on mitigation of climate change programs and projects implemented by different institutions in the public sector, private sector, civil society, and grassroots community organizations’ (p. 70).

National institutions such as the Ministry of Land and Environment provide substantive content on climate change and the environment, including legal documents, picture galleries, news, events, environmental conservation, and environmental education materials. The ministry dedicates a section of its website to climate change, where users can obtain up-to-date information on the climate change situation, the country’s commitments in relation to climate change, the effects of climate change, climate vulnerability, as well as the government’s plans and projects on climate change adaptation and mitigation. The ministry also has social media accounts on various platforms including Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and it is available to be contacted on Whatsapp

The Updated Nationally Determined Contribution (2020) notes that providing information on climate change is key to strengthening climate risk preparedness and overall response capacity in the country. Quick access to accurate information can prevent significant damages in scenarios of droughts, floods and other kinds of climate disasters. The NDC indicates that media outlets, including community radio stations, are key channels for this kind of information. 

III) Climate change and public participation

Together with public awareness and public access to information, public participation has been identified as an important area of focus for climate change. The National Strategy for Climate Change (2013-2025) bases its principles on those that guide international bodies, such as the UNFCCC. These include the principles of transparency and participation, meaning that the process of implementing responses in the face of climate change must be inclusive and participatory. 

The Ministry of Land and Environment is implementing a programme on Coastal Resilience to Climate Change Nature-based solutions for building resilience in vulnerable coastal communities in Mozambique. The programme encourages vulnerable communities living in coastal areas, such as Gaza and Beira, to be actively involved in climate change activities.

The Ministry of Land and Environment set up the National Climate Change Conference as a forum open to public participation. The conference is held every two years, and it is a focal point for disseminating information and discussing relevant climate change affairs. The first conference took place in 2021, and the second conference was to take place in 2023. Afterwards, a report on the two conferences will be published. 

An example of public participation in relation to climate change was the development of the Integrated Development and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Zambezi Watercourse (2022) programme, which went through a public consultation process before it was launched. The aim was to ensure that there was good public understanding of the programme’s contents, scope, institutional arrangements and commitments, as well as appropriate activities that could be included. 

As part of appropriate actions for adaptation and mitigation, the Second National Communication (2022) identifies waste management as an area needing more public participation – such as recycling and composting initiatives. 


I) Country monitoring

Mozambique has enacted a National Climate Change Monitoring and Evaluation System (2014) under the Ministry of Land and Environment, which ensures that all climate actions in the country are closely monitored, supported and sustained. The system focuses on adaptation, mitigation, and the development of policy and institutional operations. For adaptation, the monitoring and evaluation system focuses on change in climate vulnerability for households, while for mitigation, the impact indicator is on the variation of the level of emission of carbon dioxide level per capita. As per the Updated First Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-205) the National Directorate of Climate Change in the Ministry of Land and Environment will also monitor and evaluate climate change adaptation and mitigation actions, including in relation to the support received, and it will report on the status of implementation. 

According to the Sustainable Development Report (2022), Mozambique still faces challenges in Quality Education (SDG 4). However, the report does indicate that the score is moderately improving. The country continues to face challenges in its attainment of Climate Action Goal (SDG 13), but it does appear to be staying on track for the achievement of this goal. The report does not specify the score on target 4.7 or target 13.3.

The Second National Communication (2022) notes that monitoring and evaluation support the country in its ability to develop evidence-based climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, there is no monitoring and evaluation of climate change in education and communication contexts. 

According to the Updated First Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-205) the Government of Mozambique is making an effort to increase the monitoring of climate change projects and actions. This is largely done by strengthening the infrastructure and human resources dedicated to monitoring and verification of climate change adaptation and mitigation projects. The NDC also notes that the country will strengthen the role and remit of the National Institute of Meteorology (INAM) so that the institute can coordinate the gathering and monitoring of climate data, as well as cooperate with other national agencies on developing an ‘Indicator of Losses’ brought about to climate disasters. This will involve the development of human and economic impact indicators to measure different kinds of losses. 

II) MECCE Project Monitoring

The Monitoring and Evaluating Climate Communication and Education (MECCE) Project examined the Education Strategic Plan (2020-2029) and the Primary Education Curriculum Framework (2020), for references to ‘climate change’, ‘environment’ and ‘sustainability’.

In the Education Strategic Plan (2020-2029) climate change terminology is not mentioned. While ‘environment’ is mentioned ten times, ‘sustainability’ is not mentioned. In the Primary Education Curriculum Framework (2020) ‘climate change’ and ‘sustainability’ are not mentioned once, whereas ‘environment’ is mentioned once. 

This section will be updated as the MECCE Project develops.