CCE Country Profile


Table of Contents

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I) Climate change context

Madagascar is the fifth-largest island in the world, with five percent of the world’s biodiversity. It is situated in the Indian Ocean off the southern African coast. According to the World Bank, the country has a population of approximately 28 million (as of 2020) and one of the world’s highest poverty rates. Politically, the government of Madagascar is headed by the President, who works with the two legislative assemblies, the National Assembly and the Senate, formed by community representatives. The government is solely responsible for developing climate change–related laws and policies for the country. 

Madagascar is already facing serious consequences due to climate change. According to the Nationally Determined Contributions (2022), the island has experienced extreme weather events and climate impacts over the last two decades, including extended droughts, hurricanes and cyclones, and floods associated with the cyclone disturbances. Moreover, Third National Communication (2017) highlighted that between 1961 and 1990, Madagascar experienced an average temperature increase of 0.5% degrees.

The Global Carbon Atlas indicates that Madagascar’s carbon emissions are 0.1 tCO2 per capita. The highest polluting industries in Madagascar are energy; agriculture; land use, land-use change, and forestry; and waste although the percentage contributions are not provided in the Island’s Nationally Determined Contribution report. Nonetheless, the country is determined to absorb 61 MtCO2 of carbon and reduce emissions by 30 MtCO2 through mitigation by 2030. Madagascar is a non-Annex I country under the United Nations Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC). The country ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2003, the Doha Amendment in 2015, and the Paris Agreement in 2016. 

II) Relevant government agencies

Climate change

There are several governmental agencies involved in climate change in Madagascar.

The Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development is the leading governmental agency responsible for action and policy on climate change in Madagascar. The Ministry is also the Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) Focal Point for Madagascar and plays a coordinating role for all other agencies involved in climate change communication and education activities in the country. On its website, the Ministry lists climate change as one of its key themes to attain sustainable development in the country. All national-level climate initiatives and projects, local and international policy, and reporting and resource mobilization for climate are coordinated by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. For instance, in 2021 the Ministry organized a workshop to update the National Climate Change Policy. Other climate-related themes coordinated by the Ministry include the green and blue economy, biodiversity, eco-citizenship, and forest landscape restoration.

The National Coordination Office for REDD+, which is part of the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development, has a Climate Adaptation and Resilience Department (SARC). The Department seeks to promote sustainable development and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Madagascar, in anticipation of climate change–related risks and disasters, has established the National Office for Risk and Disaster Management (BNGRC), which acts as the operational extension of the National Council for Risk and Disaster Management (CNGRC). As outlined in decree no. 2006-904, this entity is a pivotal part of the country’s institutional framework for Risk and Disaster Management (GRC), serving as the chief authority responsible for overseeing, coordinating, and monitoring all disaster risk reduction and management activities throughout Madagascar.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock in Madagascar is involved in climate change–related activities and projects to build the agricultural sector’s resilience. For instance, in 2017 the Ministry initiated the AD2M project to benefit smallholder farmers in the Menabe and Melaky regions of the country, which intends to provide irrigation systems to 35,000 households. This will allow these households to access production systems and practices that will promote the resilience of farmer communities to climate change.

Another agency engaged in climate change in Madagascar is the Ministry of Energy and Hydrocarbons. The Ministry implements various initiatives and projects that promote access to renewable energy through hydroelectric, solar biomass, and wind in Madagascar. Adopting renewable energies is a pathway to achieving the emission reduction goals stipulated in Madagascar’s Nationally Determined Contributions (2022). The Ministry supervises the Rural Electrification Development Agency, which is responsible for electrifying interconnected electrical systems powered by renewable energies. However, besides this mandate, no information could be found on specific climate change communication and education activities and initiatives in which the Agency is engaged. 

The National Office for Climate Change, Carbon and the Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (BNCCREDD+) is an agency attached to the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development and coordinates all climate change and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programme initiatives and actions. The Office’s purposes include promoting a climate change–resilient economy, sustainable development with low emissions, reducing deforestation and forest degradation–linked emissions, and developing the sale of carbon credits equitably to promote sustainable climate financing. 

The Ministry of Transport and Meteorology in Madagascar is in charge of the country’s transportation infrastructure and weather-related services. The Ministry is responsible for weather forecasting, monitoring, and providing early warnings for extreme weather events such as cyclones, heavy rainfall, and droughts.

The Directorate of Meteorology in Madagascar (Météo Madagascar) provides climate change–related information and weather forecasts for use by its populations and other agencies in the country. According to its website, long-term forecasts under different scenarios (30, 50, and 80 years from 2023) are provided by the Agency to understand how the climate can evolve under new constraints of greenhouse gas emissions. 

The Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock is responsible for various activities related to agriculture, livestock, and rural development such as promoting sustainable farming, food security, biodiversity conservation, afforestation and reforestation, and climate change–resilient agricultural practices. The Ministry also works on building the capacity of stakeholders in the agriculture and livestock sectors through training and education.

The Ministry of Energy and Hydrocarbons formulates and implements national energy policies and plans to ensure the efficient and sustainable supply of energy resources while encouraging the development and utilization of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency initiatives.

Education and communication

Various agencies in Madagascar are involved in climate change communication and education. 

The Ministry of National Education is an essential agency that seeks to prepare individuals to engage in social, economic, and cultural activities that lead to a harmonious country. The Ministry ensures that children in Madagascar have access to quality pre-primary to secondary education, mainly focusing on rural areas to increase student enrolment. According to the Education Sector Plan (2018–2022), the government has set an ambitious plan of an 83% enrolment rate in public schools by 2030 for 5-year-old children. 

The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Madagascar is the lead agency responsible for overseeing higher education and scientific research and is mandated to ensure that students have access to quality higher education. The Ministry recognizes the impact of climate change on sustainable development in the country, as highlighted in its National Research Strategy (2013), which stated that climate change would disrupt the functioning of the ecosystem and rural production. One of the research strategies was increasing the education and research budget by the government, pointing out that only 2%–3% of the public budget allocated for education is spent on research. Concerning climate change communication and education, the Education Sector Plan (2018–2022) states that the Ministry is implementing the sixth pillar of the Plan, which focuses on improving the education system to build resilience to climate-induced disasters, considering that the country is exposed and vulnerable to the consequences of climate change.

The Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training oversees technical and vocational education and training programmes, including curriculum development and the establishment of vocational schools and centres. The Ministry coordinates capacity-building programmes that enhance knowledge and technological transfer in the country. The Ministry also offers certifications and apprenticeships to integrate youth in the workforce, and some of these programmes are targeted to the environmental sector and the inclusion of women in the work market. 

Finally, the Ministry of Youth and Sports, which aims to promote youth development, engagement, and empowerment organizes and encourages young people to actively participate in various community, social, and civic activities, fostering their sense of responsibility and citizenship. The Ministry also supports youth leadership and engagement in decision-making processes and community development.

III) Relevant laws, policies, and plans

Climate change

In 2010, Madagascar approved a new Constitution of the Republic of Madagascar (2010). In this document, the State guarantees “the rights of the child, to the rights of women, to the protection of the environment, to the social, economical, political, civil and cultural rights” (n.p).

Law No. 2015-003 (2015) updates the Malagasy Environment Charter, which consists of a framework that guides environmental management in the country. The Charter is targeted to key stakeholders and includes principles for developing environmental policies. The Law promotes public awareness about environmental protections and the support of environmental monitoring processes to ensure the assessment of all environmental projects in the country. 

Due to the limited access to electricity in the country (15% currently), Madagascar has made laws to govern energy production to ensure that its population has access to electricity, mainly from renewable energy. In 2017, Madagascar created Law No. 2017-021 on reforming the National Electricity Fund. Through this law, the government committed to increasing access to electricity by up to 70% by 2030, and the Law states that 85% of electricity production will be sourced primarily from renewable energies (75% from hydroelectricity, 5% from wind, and 5% from solar energy). Steps will also be implemented to enhance energy efficiency at the consumption level.

The State General Policy 2019–2023 contemplates economic and political changes to address the environmental emergency faced in the country. Some suggested changes are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce the illicit exploitation of natural resources. The Policy contains 7 action axes, one of them being environment and sustainable development; it states, “Madagascar intends to collaborate with the concert of nations to implement all the measures needed to deal with the impacts of climate change” (p. 14). 

Another policy published in 2019 is the Madagascar Emergence Plan 2019–2023 that outlines development priorities at the medium-term in the country. Priority 32 contemplates adapting to and mitigating the effects of climate change. 

Madagascar has a Revised National Climate Change Policy (2021) in place. This policy was developed in 2011 to fight climate change by serving as a reference for all climate change actions in Madagascar. This document was revised and updated in 2021 to achieve increased socioeconomic resilience and enable the population to access essential resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, strengthen carbon sinks, and establish national frameworks for strengthening climate action. 

The National Strategy to Face Climate Change in Agriculture-Livestock-Fishery (2013) outlines four strategic axes that respond to the National Climate Change Policy (2011). The strategic axes are 1) adapt agriculture, livestock, and fishing to climate change; 2) develop mitigation actions in the sectors that create socioeconomic benefits; 3) develop a financial mechanism to support adaptation; and 4) promote research and innovation in the sectors included in the Strategy

The Food and Agriculture Organization, at the request of the government of Madagascar, particularly its Ministry of Agriculture, developed the Country Programming Framework 2014–2019 (2014). The Framework aims to support the country in its actions to address the needs of the national government, stakeholders, and technical and financial partners of the agriculture sector. As part of the priority areas set in this document, climate change and education are mentioned. For example, Priority Area B “Governance and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources” aims to support the capacities of people for the sustainable management of natural resources by incorporating adaptation to climate change.

The development of the National Risk and Disaster Management Strategy 2016–2030 was promoted by Law No. 2015-031 (2015) and consists of a living document that Madagascar uses to monitor and act on climate change in the country. This Strategy was developed by the National Office for Risk and Disaster Management, an agency responsible for designing, conducting, and evaluating emergency preparedness activities for environmental hazards. The strategy’s vision is to build a country that is “resilient from shocks, protected from all damage in its social dimension, cultural, economic, and environmental for sustainable development” (p. 8). According to the Strategy, the agency is charged with coordinating the implementation of activities that will build the country’s resilience to climate change.

Education and communication

The Education Act (Law No. 2004-004) was enacted in 2004 and updated by Law No. 2008-011, and it provides the general organizations and orientation for the education system in Madagascar. No mention of environmental education or climate change is included in the Act. Nevertheless, Madagascar’s recent Education Sector Plan (2018–2022) emphasizes the need to improve the resilience of the education system against risks and disasters, considering that Madagascar is vulnerable to climate-induced disasters such as hurricanes and cyclones. The Plan recognizes that climate change is not adequately mainstreamed in the school curricula, especially for the 1st and 2nd cycles of primary education. The Plan indicates that there is one manual for primary education on climate risks and disasters, but it could not be found during the preparation of this report. In response to the lack of climate change topics in the education system, the Plan suggests that the government develop a strategy that enables collaboration among government agencies within the education system to build synergy to act on climate.

In 2020, the Ministry of National Education developed the Environmental and Social Management Framework to establish a screening process and support the implementation of a programme in the basic education system to improve environmental education in the country. The document highlights that the Framework’s development included a public consultation carried out among populations likely to be targeted or impacted by the programme. At the time of this review, content related to climate change education was not included in the Framework.

The National Adaptation Plan (2021) for Madagascar also includes education actions for climate adaptation. Among the six areas of focus for the Plan, information, education, and communication are included. The actions include implementing educational communications on climate change for the public and organizing public climate information campaigns. The National Adaptation Plan suggests creating a ‘mixed brigade of Gendarmerie’ and forest agents to contribute to climate change education and awareness by introducing training in schools and establishing a study module on ‘environment and climate change’ at each level of education in Madagascar. The National Adaptation Plan also indicates that the government should introduce environmental protection education in schools at an early age.

The previous National Climate Change Policy (2015) for Madagascar called for amplifying information, communication, and education on climate change. This includes promoting and strengthening climate research and technological transfer. The policy advocated for educating all citizens on climate change through public education to get their support and full participation in national climate change initiatives. The policy also suggested that the government enhance climate change education and integrate it into the education system in all programmes of formal, non-formal, and informal education.

Madagascar’s Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research developed the Education Sector Plan (2018–2022), which outlines some measures the country’s education sector needs to address to build climate resilience within the education system. According to the Plan, the Ministry has reformed Higher Education and Research since 2008 to respond to emerging issues, including “environment and climate change and renewable energies” (p. 225). The Plan further includes a strategic objective of improving “the resilience of the education system to risks and disasters” (p. 180). According to the Plan, the Ministry has developed study materials considering natural hazards and climate change for pupils and teachers in basic education. Ultimately, the goals are to develop a citizenry that can assist in mitigating the climate change–related impacts that the country faces.

IV) Terminology used for climate communication and education

The terminology used for climate change communication and education in Madagascar is diverse. Most non-governmental organizations such as Zonta International working in the climate change space use common terminologies such as ‘environmental education,’ ‘education for sustainable development,’ and ‘training.’ In the context of non-scholarly education, terminologies like ‘public education’ and ‘public awareness’ are commonly used. For instance, the Revised National Climate Change Policy (2021) suggests that the government of Madagascar needs to develop a national strategy for education, training, and public awareness to enhance the understanding of the challenges and risks of climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation. 

In the Law that covers the Malagasy Environment Charter (2015), ‘greenhouse gases’ are defined as “gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, which absorb and re-emit infrared radiation” (n.p.). The document also defines ‘resilience to climate change’ as the “capacity of a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances while retaining its basic structure and modes of operation, the capacity to organise, and adapt to stress and changes” (n.p). Finally, the document defines ‘adaptation to climate change’ as: “initiatives and measures taken to minimize the negative effects of climate change on natural systems and human activities and to take advantage of the positive effects of efforts adopted to adjust to it” (n.p.).

The National Adaptation Plan (2021) indicates that because of the lack of climate change knowledge, the government needs to “organise training for health personnel, with specific modules, on climate change” (p. 61). 

The Revised National Climate Change Policy (2021) contains an operational glossary that provides definitions of key concepts. One key concept in the glossary is ‘Action for Climate Empowerment,’ which is defined as

“Measures taken in application of Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) and Article 12 of the Paris Agreement (2015) in the six priority areas: climate change education, training, public access to information, public awareness, public participation, and international cooperation on these issues.”

– (p. 13)

V) Budget for climate communication and education

The National Adaptation Communication (2022) illustrates that Madagascar has received climate change funding in the last decade in the amount of nearly US$ 100 million for various climate change–related projects. The agriculture, forestry, and biodiversity sectors have benefited the most. The country has also received over US$ 50 million from international agencies such as the Green Climate Fund and the Least Developed Countries Fund to implement the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, the report does not indicate the amount allocated specifically to climate change communication and education.

An integrated rural development AD2M project is being implemented in Madagascar under various funding arrangements with the government of Madagascar. The project intends to build the climate-change resistance of rural communities by enhancing agricultural production systems and practices. The project website indicates that the project funding is US$ 56 million with support from the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the Open Fund for International Development, and the government of Madagascar. The amount allocated for climate change communication and education is not indicated.

In 2023, the non-governmental organization Zonta International provided UNICEF with US$ 500,000 for climate change education for girls in Madagascar. The amount is provided for three years, from 2023 to 2025, to empower young girls to take action to build climate change–resilient communities and to assist the country in improving the quality of children’s education. 


I) Climate change in pre-primary, primary, and secondary education

Madagascar’s basic education system is managed under the Ministry of National Education. According to the Ministry website, the lower education system is classified into four categories: preschool, primary, college, and high school. Preschool involves one year for children age 4–5 years, and primary school involves five levels for children 6–11 years. Students who complete a Certificate of Primary and Elementary Studies join the college, which is the secondary level establishment that takes them four years to complete. This is the last level before students can enrol for a Bachelor’s degree at university, which takes an additional three years to complete. Students undergo examination certificates after the first cycle of secondary education (BEPC).

In 2017, the Ministry of National Education organized a contest for the best innovative project to combat climate change among secondary school students. Students from 378 public high schools were invited to participate. The objective of the contest was to improve the quality of science learning and to encourage students’ innovation in solutions to combat climate change 

Analysis of the official study materials for pre-primary to college level did not yield climate-related curricula emphasizing climate change. At the high school level, students study climate change and the environment. An analysis of the curriculum for History and Geography indicates that climate change is not highly emphasized in the subject guide and is only mentioned once. The natural environment is highly emphasized in the curriculum and mentioned several times. Students are taught aspects relating to the relationship between agriculture and environment, environment and sustainable development, how to manage the planetary environment, and the challenges facing the planetary environment such as the greenhouse effect, pollution, and deforestation. The curriculum for secondary education (2nd grade) (2021) indicates that students are encouraged to analyze climate change

Education for Madagascar, a non-profit organization, is involved in climate change communication and education among school children and local communities. The organization runs educational projects on environment and climate change with students. The organization also involves children in permaculture projects known as PERMADA to learn about sustainable agro-ecological agricultural practices to promote healthy food production and self-sufficiency. 

Zonta International has supported girls’ education in Madagascar since 2016 and collaborates with the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. In 2023, the organization partnered with the UNICEF to support a 3-year project called ‘Engaging girls on climate change in Madagascar,’ which will be implemented over the two following years by engaging school-going children, particularly girls, to learn about climate change. According to the brief, this project’s two primary aims are to support Madagascar in improving the quality of girls’ education through environmental conservation and education and empowering girls to take action to change and build climate-resilient communities. The project targets 1000 pupils (540 girls) and 750 teachers. It is anticipated that this project could indirectly impact over 119,000 pupils and 1500 teachers from 700 primary schools through hands-on climate change and environmental education.

The Givaudan Foundation has implemented an environment and climate change education programme for the children of farmers in ginger-producing communities in Madagascar to encourage schools to integrate climate change into the study curricula of primary schools.

II) Climate change in teacher training and teacher resources

In 2014, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) developed a training resource for climate change education for sustainable development for pre- and in-service courses, cross-curricula classroom practice, and community-based learning programmes. The ‘Climate change education inside and outside of the classroom’ course was developed by UNESCO in partnership with Rhodes University to empower educators to teach aspects of climate change in and outside the classroom. The course employed a MAST (measure, analyze, share, and take action) methodology specifically designed for African coastal regions and small island developing states, encouraging educators to integrate climate change into their teaching. Ultimately, the course aimed to assist local educators in Madagascar in taking contextualized action to mitigate and adapt to climate change. 

The United Nations Children’s Fund launched a learning tools programme in 2020, which is critical for teacher training. These tools included key rings, guides for teachers, and boards to strengthen students’ and teachers’ knowledge and participation in environmental and climate change actions for sustainable development. 

The Lemur Duke Centre in Madagascar is an active climate change teacher training stakeholder, working with the country’s Ministry of National Education. The Centre has organized teacher training workshops with local educators and teachers to train them on how to integrate environmental education and climate change into the study curricula for local primary schools and manuals of environmental interpretive centres. The subjects integrated into school curricula include biodiversity, environmental conservation, and climate change. By 2021, over 2600 teachers were trained in environmental education and climate change and received manuals and other materials to implement what they learned in their respective schools.

III) Climate change in higher education

Climate change education, research, and training are conducted in higher learning institutions such as universities and research institutions, both national and international. The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Madagascar lists the public and private universities and other higher institutions offering various study programmes in the country. The university websites accessed did not provide information relating to the courses.

The Marine Science Research Master Plan (2018) was developed by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research and provides an overview of the challenges and problems that affect marine ecosystems. The Plan highlights that one environmental issue faced by the country is ocean warming derived from climate change. As a response, the Plan proposes to develop and promote research on adaptation to climate change in Madagascar. 

The University of Antananarivo offers various courses from undergraduate to Master’s and Doctorate levels, and a few offer environment-related modules. For instance, the Master of Science and Technology offers a module on agro-ecology, biodiversity, and climate change. 

The French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD) is involved in climate change–related research and training in Madagascar. For example, scientists at this Institute are researching techniques to measure and identify carbon release from soils for better agricultural and management practices that facilitate carbon storage in the soils. This project contributes to the broader international initiative ‘4 per 1000 launched in 2015 at COP21 to fight against climate change through carbon sequestration. The global ‘4 per 1000’ Initiative emphasizes agriculture’s pivotal role in food security and combating climate change by promoting better soil management. Madagascar actively participates in this movement, prioritizing resilient and sustainable agricultural practices that boost employment and align with broader sustainable development objectives.

The National Center for Applied Research on Rural Development (FOFIFA) is involved in high-level research on various subjects in Madagascar, including climate change and the environment. The agency promotes agricultural research and focuses on crop, forestry, and socioeconomic development. Concerning climate change, the organization studies water and soil conservation and management. The organization conducts action on climate change–related research projects such as the Adaptation of agricultural value chains to climate change (PrAdA) project. The project develops appropriate crops that can flourish in different climatic regions of the country. 

The French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) undertakes research in Madagascar to assist the country in optimally using its biodiversity, managing its environment, and promoting an agro-ecology approach for sustainable agriculture, mainly for households in the highlands. The organization is involved in training researchers at various universities in Madagascar, including the University of Antananarivo. In the last 5 years, the organization has supported the training of over 50 Malagasy and French trainees in Madagascar. The climate change–related research areas supported by the organization include sustainable farming systems, agro-ecology, forestry, and biodiversity.

IV) Climate change in training and adult learning

Climate change in training and adult learning is a vital aspect of climate change mitigation and adaptation measures in Madagascar, as indicated by the various government policies and initiatives by non-state actors. 

One of the main goals of the Country Programming Framework 2014–2019 (2014) is to strengthen resilience to shocks and hazards as part of adaptation to climate change. To achieve this, the Framework seeks to increase the support in rural areas to revitalize traditional farming and agriculture and to modernize the rural economy through the development of new trades. Another objective of the Framework is to improve access to education and vocational training in the informal and rural sectors, with a particular focus on youth and women, to provide people with access to decent work training.

The National Adaptation Plan (2021) indicates that the government of Madagascar should implement training for health workers on climate change because they lack knowledge of climate risks and impacts. The Plan states that the government should “organise training for health personnel, with specific modules on climate change, the link with health, and adaptation” (p. 61) and develop the tools which can be used to understand the adaptation targets. 

In 2022, the Ministry Technical Education and Vocational Training organized, with support of its Regional Departments, Days of Technical Education. During the 2022 edition of this event, one of the presented topics was ‘Climate change—causes, effects, and issues,’ which was supported by cultural activities and reforestation days. 

Non-governmental organizations such as Money for Madagascar are actively involved in adult learning and training on climate change. The organization runs a forest restoration project and conducts regular training with local people on climate-friendly agricultural methods. Local people are trained in tree planting, conservation of Indigenous tree species, and compost production. In 2020, the organization conducted training for 32 families, where each family received 400 fruit trees and 500 quick-growing timber trees for planting. 

Another organization involved in climate change training is SEED Madagascar. This international non-governmental organization works with local communities to prevent and mitigate forest fires, conducts mass mobilization to share fire prevention strategies, and offers training to reduce the likelihood of fires. The organization’s project Ala dissuades people from using smoking methods of fish preservation to protect the environment and to reduce carbon emissions. Local management committees are also set up where people learn how to map illegal fires using satellite mapping. Forest patrolling agents are also trained on how to record maps and use the aerial views. The aforementioned initiatives are part of Madagascar’s environmental and climate change mitigation measures to prevent emissions from forest fire outbreaks. 


I) Climate change and public awareness

The Revised National Climate Change Policy (2021) indicated that although Madagascar has developed strategic frameworks and structural efforts to strengthen education, training, and access to information, some critical elements, including developing and applying public education and climate change awareness programmes, are still insufficient. Nonetheless, non-governmental organizations have contributed significantly to filling this climate change public awareness void. 

For example, Money for Madagascar is a non-governmental organization involved in climate change education and awareness in the country. The organization organizes climate change awareness sessions with the local communities through its Mitsinjo Reforestation project to educate people about the benefits of conserving forests, co-existence with local forest ecosystems, and the long-term benefits of protecting forests and wetlands, including eco-tourism. This is an ongoing programme by Money for Madagascar. 

The National Risk and Disaster Management Strategy (2016–2030) includes measures for raising public awareness of risks and hazards in relation to climate change. According to the Strategy, the government, through the National Office for Risk and Disaster Management, organizes public awareness campaigns on climate risks to empower communities working with civil society organizations, religious groups, young people, and other vulnerable groups. 

The National Adaptation Plan (2021) also suggests that the government of Madagascar raise climate change public awareness at all levels to enhance broader understanding and consideration of climate change issues. There is no evidence that these measures have been implemented as per the National Adaptation Plan suggestions.

The World Food Programme’s Strategic Plan (2019–2024) outlines its climate change public awareness plans for food sustainability in the country. The planned actions by the agency aim at enabling women and men smallholder farmers, who are facing climate shocks, to sustainably create resilient food systems. The Strategy includes the agency’s plans to raise awareness of climate change, environmental degradation, and clean energy use. These efforts are expected to promote sustainable resource management, safer cooking, and sustainable agricultural production. 

In 2020, the United Nations Children’s Fund launched a learning tools programme for climate change public awareness using schools as launchpads for the initiative. Through the technical team of the Environmental Education Department under the Ministry of National Education, the agency developed tools to facilitate public awareness of climate change.

II) Climate change and public access to information

According to the Revised National Climate Change Policy (2021), Madagascar still has visible gaps in public education and access to climate change information. Non-state actors in the country have stepped up to ensure the local population has access to climate change information. 

In 2020, the Climate Transparency Platform organized a workshop in partnership with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development to support the launch of a Malagasy Portal focused on Climate Transparency. The workshop and the portal aim to increase public awareness and access to information on climate change.

The National Adaptation Plan (2021) includes the measures to be undertaken by the government of Madagascar to develop early warning systems for weather and climate; this system will assist fishermen and smallholder farmers in accessing helpful information. 

The Education sector plan (2018–2022) encourages public access to climate change information through non-discriminatory education and training for all, irrespective of education level, economic status, or professional qualification. 

One of the initiatives of the Money for Madagascar organization is enabling local people to access climate information to build their resilience. Madagascar is prone to cyclones and suffers other forms of disasters, such as droughts and floods, which affect people and their livelihoods, particularly in agriculture. Besides providing disaster relief for vulnerable communities, Money for Madagascar ensures that the local population and smallholder farmers can access early warning systems and disaster preparedness techniques.

III) Climate change and public participation

The Revised National Climate Change Policy (2021) states that Madagascar is still limited in the measures that relate to public participation and assessment of climate challenges. International agencies and other non-governmental organizations have significantly contributed to public participation in climate change issues. 

The National Climate Change Policy (2015) suggested that the country needs to improve the public participation of all citizens so they can participate fully in all climate change initiatives. According to the policy, this must include educational initiatives for the public. 

The National Adaptation Communication (2022) states that private sector actors such as non-governmental organizations and private companies actively participate in climate change initiatives in Madagascar. The private sector participates in climate change initiatives in various forms, including support for local adaptation initiatives, technical support for local actors, commercial partnerships with local associations, and provision of insurance products. 

The Revised National Climate Change Policy (2021) suggests that Madagascar needs to strengthen institutional mechanisms to coordinate private sector stakeholders to support climate change adaptation efforts and the vocational training of young people. 

An updated version of the National Climate Change Strategy (2015) suggested that the government must ensure strong coordination of stakeholders and their actions to encourage synergy building to fully participate in climate change initiatives. 


I) Country monitoring

The National Adaptation Plan (2021) for Madagascar states that the country still needs a monitoring and evaluation system to assess the progress and results of the adaptation plans in the country. It further indicates that the country monitors and evaluates adaptation programmes and projects using indicators of funders such as the World Bank, Green Climate Fund, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The weak monitoring system was also highlighted in the Revised National Climate Change Policy (2021), which states that Madagascar still has weak institutional mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating climate change adaptation efforts.

The National Adaptation Plan developed a Monitoring and Evaluation system (National System for Monitoring Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change; SNVACC) to monitor the impacts and achievements of adaptation programmes and projects such as the AD2M project, which align with global indicators. The Monitoring and Evaluation system for climate change adaptation focuses on the National Adaptation Plan process and aspects: adoption, financing, communication, coordination and management of data on climate change, the capacity of actors, and the implementation of priority actions. 

Some of the indicators include:

  • The number of policy reference documents, plans, strategies, and programmes integrating climate change adaptation from 2020–2025
  • 60% of sector ministries integrating indicators
  • At least 50% of private sector members engage in climate change adaptation
  • Each Ministry has a budget line for climate change
  • Increase in the budget allocated to climate change adaptation in % and volume of external funding mobilized
  • The number of persons/ministries sensitized on climate change adaptation.

II) MECCE Project Monitoring

The MECCE Project examined the National Curriculum for High School (2019) and the Education Sector Plan (2018–2022) (2017) for references for the topics of ‘climate change,’ ‘environment,’ ‘sustainability,’ and ‘biodiversity.’

For the analysis of the Education Sector Plan, ‘climate change’ was mentioned 3 times, ‘environment’ was mentioned 5 times, ‘sustainable development’ was mentioned 46 times, and ‘biodiversity’ 1 time. 

The National Curriculum mentions ‘climate change’ 16 times, ‘environment’ 1 time, ‘sustainable development’ 15 times, and ‘biodiversity’ 3 times. 

This section will be updated as the MECCE Project develops.