CCE Country Profile


Table of Contents

We encourage countries to give input on the profiles to assist us in keeping them accurate and up to date. Please contact the GEM Report (education.profiles(at) or the MECCE Project ( to give input. The country profiles are also available on the GEM Report’s Profiles Enhancing Education Reviews (PEER) website at

This profile has been reviewed by country experts.


I) Climate change context

Located in the Caribbean Sea, Cuba is an archipelago that, according to their Third National Communication (2020), comprises the island of Cuba and La Juventud (as well as various islets and cays), encompassing a total area of 109,884 km2. The Republic of Cuba is divided into 15 provinces and 186 municipalities, and the World Bank indicated in 2022 that the country is home to around 11.2 million people. Cuba has a tropical climate, seasonally humid, with a maritime influence. Nevertheless, the Third National Communication mentions that the country is already experiencing climate fluctuations.

According to the Cuban First Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-2030), tackling climate change is greatly prioritized in the country. Cuba is a small archipelago, and so its vulnerability to climate change is considered high. Variations in temperature and sea level, cyclone activity, rainy and dry seasons, and other climate conditions have been frequent. The World Bank highlighted the three most frequent natural hazards in the country for the 1980-2020 period as storms (48%), floods (32%), and droughts (10%).

According to the Global Carbon Atlas (2021), Cuba is a low-emitting country, emitting around 1.9 tCO2 (tons of carbon dioxide) per person. The Third National Communication (2020) states that the highest emitting sectors are energy, accounting for 70.5% of total emissions (2016), and agriculture, which together add up to 90.7% of the country’s emissions.

Cuba joined the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a Non-Annex 1 party in 1994. The country has signed and ratified all climate change agreements, including the Kyoto Protocol in 1999, the Paris Agreement in 2016, and the Doha Amendment in 2016.

II) Relevant government agencies

Climate change

The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment coordinates and monitors policies related to science, technology, and the environment, which contribute to the sustainable development of the country, including climate change matters. The Ministry also houses the national Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) Focal Point in the country.

Under the scope of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, the Agency of Environment is responsible for providing scientific and technical knowledge as well as for managing natural resources, environmental conservation, evaluation of natural hazards, and climate change adaptation. The Agency seeks to improve social and economic development in the country and promotes pro-environmental behaviour among the population.

The Ministry of Economy and Planning is responsible for managing and carrying out state and government policies with regard to the economy and planning. The Ministry is a key stakeholder in implementing climate change policies in the country and is responsible for implementing the National Plan for Economic and Social Development toward 2030 (2019), which aligns with other climate change initiatives in the country.

Governmental entities such as the Ministry of Agriculture also cooperate in climate change matters. In addition to planning, directing, and executing policies for the use and ownership of land and for agricultural and forestry production, the Ministry also works on increasing the country’s capacities to better face climate change.

The Ministry of Energy and Mines is responsible for promoting the preservation and rational use of mineral and energy resources that advance sustainable development in the country. The Ministry ensures energy security and environmental protection through the development and use of renewable energy sources. In addition, the Ministry promotes research and the creation of key knowledge related to their sector, including initiatives related to climate change.

Other national entities are involved in efforts related to climate change at the national and international levels. For instance, the Ministry of Industries, which manages all levels of industry in the country, participated in the Forum on Global Action for Shared Development in January 2023. Cuba presided over the G77 alongside China in 2023, and during the Forum the country highlighted relevant projects, including initiatives in sectors such as the environment, education, and climate change.

Education and communication

The Cuban Ministry of Education plans and oversees the educational system of the country, excluding higher education. The Ministry includes among its essential objectives the development of a culture of environmental conservation and the promotion of environmental education and Education for sustainable development, especially around prevention of natural disasters, technology, climate change, biodiversity, and water conservation, among other environmental topics. The Ministry works closely with national plans such as the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017), especially for Task 10, which focuses on measures and actions that enhance risk perception and increase public knowledge and participation that supports climate action.

The Directorate of Science and Technology, part of the Ministry of Education, coordinates and contributes to ensure the development of quality education that meets integral citizen formation and training of managers and teaching staff, to promote the sustainable development of the Cuban socialist system. The Directorate elaborates and supervises strategies in science, technology, innovatio, and environmental education. In relation to environmental education, the Directorate has the ambition to develop a pro-environmental culture and education for the prevention of disaster risks, climate change, sustainable development, among others.

In Cuba, the Ministry of Higher Education proposes, plans, and executes policies regarding higher education in the country. According to the Third National Communication (2020), the Ministry focuses on various types of environmental work. By highlighting scientific research, the Ministry seeks optimal alternatives for the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, which is key to sustainable development in the country.

The Meteorological Institute of Cuba, which forms part of the Agency of Environment, is responsible for generating meteorological and climatic information, and it also creates national climate education materials. The Institute aims to ensure the safety of human lives through the release of information that is developed from research focused on marine pollution, agriculture, meteorology, climate change, climate variability, and energy, among other topics.

The Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences is an institute affiliated with the University of La Habana that offers academic training in the nuclear and environmental sciences. The Institute has made significant efforts to enhance climate change education in the country, developing, with other stakeholders, educational materials such as the Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Conceptual Bases for Education in Cuba (2014), which contains guidelines on climate change for educators and education administrative staff.

The Cuban Environmental Training Network (REDFA), which has a long history in the country, is responsible for promoting, facilitating, and encouraging environmental education and training in the country through non-governmental institutions and through governmental departments such as the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Culture, and Ministry of Agriculture. Their approach to sustainable development facilitates the establishment of a general and integral culture in Cuban society, according to the parameters of the National Plan for Economic and Social Development toward 2030.

In 1999, Cuba created the Center for Research and Environmental Services, which is part of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. The Center contributes to the sustainable development of the province of Pinar del Rio by supporting scientific and technical environmental research. The Center also develops and manages national research projects, plans, and training programs related to sciences, innovation, biodiversity, conservation, and other environmental matters.

III) Relevant laws, policies, and plans

Climate change

The Constitution of Cuba (2019) guarantees the population’s right to enjoy a healthy and balanced environment. As mentioned in the Constitution, the state is responsible for protecting natural resources and the environment, while also promoting sustainability in the economic and social spheres of the country. In addition, the Constitution promotes environmental protection and conservation as well as tackling climate change under an international-relations framework.

In 2019, the National Plan for Economic and Social Development toward 2030 established strategic axes and general and specific economic, social, and political objectives that guide the development of the country and solve structural economic gaps. The Plan aligns with the Agenda 2030 for the Sustainable Development Goals and includes actions on education and climate change. The National Plan recognizes the environment and natural resources among the nine strategy axes and seeks to reduce the country’s vulnerability to climate change vulnerability through gradual implementation of the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017). 

The National Environmental Strategy 2016/2020 established principles for how national environmental actions are taken, indicating the main environmental problems in the country, monitoring results, and setting priorities to enhance environmental protection, quality of life, and the use of natural resources. The Strategy aligns with the National Plan for Economic and Social Development toward 2030 (2015) by promoting the strategic objectives: 1) guaranteeing a rational use of natural resources and the conservation of ecosystems as the bases for the sustainability of development, 2) reducing pollution as a way to improve environmental quality, 3) effectively implementing actions to confront climate change and prioritize adaptation measures, and 4) refining and developing policy and environmental measurement instruments related to the environment as supports for decision-making at different levels.

The State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017), also known as Task Life (Tarea Vida), outlines several ambitious adaptation and mitigation actions in the majority of national sectors, including the promotion of education for sustainable development. The aim of these actions is to better address climate change and to ensure the safety of the population. The plan is highly influential at the national level, and it is considered the main policy related to climate change. The Plan was to be progressively implemented in the short term (2021), medium term (2030), long term (2050), and very long term (2100).

In 2022, the Government of Cuba presented Five Years of Task Life (2017-2022), which highlights important actions and results during those years, as well as projections for future years. The document reports that actions to strengthen education, communication, and awareness have increasingly taken place. Such actions support the building of capacity for climate resilience, adaptation, and mitigation among the public, prioritized sectors, and local governments. Nevertheless, Task Life Projections (2021-2025) states that action plans that must be continually strengthened are those for education, training, raising awareness, and public participation, all of which contribute to changes in people’s behaviour related to climate action

The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment oversees the Macro Program for Natural Resources and Environment, which works toward effective implementation of the objectives of the National Plan for Economic and Social Development toward 2030 (2015) and the 2030 Agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (2015) related to natural resources and the environment. The Macro Program also seeks to achieve this through additional plans, such as the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017)and the National Environmental Strategy (2016/2020).

Other national legislation also addresses climate adaptation by the Cuban population. For instance, Decree 337 (2017) sets the legal framework for applying Law 124 on Terrestrial Waters (2017). Both promote effective management of water and prevent associated risks. The legislation promotes the development of measures that prevent floods and droughts, as well as promoting climate change adaptation and building capacity to respond to climate change.

Education and communication

At the time of this review, the most recently updated environmental education strategy in Cuba was the Environmental Education Strategy (2010-2015), which aims to enhance environmental education for sustainable development by strengthening institutional frameworks and unifying environmental education efforts by government institutions. The Strategy’s action plan is based on five dimensions: 1) strengthening of institutional capacity, 2) training of human resources, 3) environmental education in the national education system, 4) educational communication for sustainable development, and 5) environmental education for citizenship. The Strategy includes initiatives for teacher training, research on environmental education, and the strengthening of environmental communication, thereby fostering values, knowledge, and capacity that encourage active participation in environmental protection. Climate change is included in the topics that the Strategy prioritized for that period, indicating that climate change is one of the main environmental problems in the country and should receive great attention. The Strategy focuses on the implications of climate changes for Cuba, environmental conservation, and mitigation and adaptation strategies and their link to energy development in the country.

As stated previously, under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment’s purview, the Macro Program for Natural Resources and Environment brings together the National Environmental Strategy (2016/2020) and the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017), including approaches to environmental and climate change education as part of the Education for Sustainable Development Strategy. .

The National Environmental Strategy (2016/2020) emphasizes environmental education, communication, and information with an environmental culture-oriented approach as a principle to fulfill the Cuban environmental management and policies. Further, among the specific objectives and prioritized action plans to fight against climate change are aims to increase the perception of climate change impacts through national, sectorial, and local initiatives that emphasize environmental education and dissemination processes.

Task 10 of the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017) also emphasizes initiatives that seek to increase the climate change knowledge, awareness, and participation of the Cuban population to better confront climate change. For instance, the Third National Communication (2020) contains projections showing that threats to freshwater access will increase. Task 10 addresses this threat by including initiatives that promote a culture and education of water conservation. In addition, the Ministry of Education has highlighted the importance of the State Plan and of efforts by educators to better implement environmental education in the country, as well as of enhancing the culture of and education about environmental conservation and protection to prevent natural disasters, respondo to the effects of climate change, and support ustainable development.

In April 2023, the Ministry of Education presented the Strategy to Raise the Quality of Education in Cuba 2020-2030. The report proposes five thematic actions, which include learning about sustainable development and teacher training. Among the expected outcomes for 2030 is Sustainable Development Goal 4 (Quality Education), which includes Target 4.7 on education for sustainable development.

According to Cuban experts, the Ministry of Education is developing a plan for the iImprovement of the National Education System, which means the transformation of programs, curricula, methodological guidelines, textbooks and activity booklets). It should be noted, although the work has not been completed, that these educational materials include content on climate change and contribute to mitigation and adaptation to climate change activities. Since this curricular reform is in the process of development, it is not possible, in this report, to provide updated information on the incorporation of content on climate change and related topics in each study program, textbooks and others. For this reason, we offer the information that appears below with the existing books and educational materials, and examples of current content that we were able to compile.

IV) Terminology used for climate communication and education

The term ‘climate change’ is found in different Cuban documents, and climate change is considered an issue that determines governmental actions. For instance, the National Environmental Strategy (2016/2020) states that “[the national panorama features factors] such as climate change, which is a key global challenge that requires increasing the application of adaptation measures and introducing mitigation actions” (p. 3).

Climate change is also prioritized in the National Environmental Education Strategy (2010-2015) as an issue that should receive special attention. The aim to address environmental problems, including climate mitigation and adaptation, in close connection to the theme of ‘energy development.’ Further, the document also prioritizes themes such as conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, consumption and sustainable production, citizen participation, environmental awareness, environmental culture, and environmental education.

The National Plan for Economic and Social Development toward 2030 (2019) includes the term ‘environmental education’ as well as other terms such as ‘environmental awareness’ and ‘environmental culture’ in its objectives, stating that the plan will “promote and increase education, awareness, and environmental culture among citizens, as well as effective public participation and media engagement” (p. 29).

The definition of ‘climate change’ found in Cuban educational materials delves deeper into concepts such as the greenhouse effect, as well as examples of causes and effects of climate change. The Natural Sciences: Grade 7 (2012) defines ‘climate change’ as

“a relatively rapid global change of the Earth’s climate, caused by human activities that modify the composition of the atmosphere and cause the increased greenhouse effect, referring to the results of the increase in atmospheric concentrations of natural gases and those created from greenhouse effect that causes an increase in the average global temperature of the earth’s surface. The increase in temperature on the earth’s surface or global warming, brings as a consequence a series of complex phenomena, among them: the alteration of the precipitation regime, intense and extensive drought processes, as well as serious and devastating rainy events; sea level rise, extraordinarily warm years, melting ice, rising sea temperatures…”

– (p. 27)

Terms related to climate change communication and education can be found in Task Life Projections (2021-2015): ‘raising knowledge,’ ‘awareness,’ and ‘public participation’ are terms that are included in the document. Objective 7 is “strengthening the knowledge, awareness, and participation of the population in the face of the negative impacts of climate change, which will increase the resilience, citizen participation, equity, and responsibility in Cuban society” (p. 21).

V) Budget for climate communication and education

According to the World Bank, the Government of Cuba spent 16.7% of total government expenditures on education in 2020. The amount allocated to climate change education is not specified.

In 2022, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change published Technical Assessment of Climate Finance in Cuba, which indicated that Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Higher Education, and the Cuban Institute of Radio and Television were funding Task 10 (to enhance risk perception and climate knowledge) of the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017).

In addition, the Technical Assessment of Climate Finance in Cuba (2022) states that effective mobilization and management of international financial resources are highly important to addressing climate change in the country. As per the Climate Finance Access and Mobilization Strategy for Cuba (2022-2030) (2022), Cuba still has a significant gap in this regard, with climate financing flows into the country of an estimated US$ 208 million a year.

Regarding climate change, the National Plan for Economic and Social Development toward 2030 (2019) mentions objectives for tackling climate change and guaranteeing the protection of the environment and natural resources. The Plan fosters the implementation of economic incentives such as taxes and tariffs to achieve financial sustainability in the country.

According to Five Years of Task Life (2017-2022), the government has made progress on the management of external financial resources. For instance, in 2017, the Inter-Ministerial Coordination Committee for the Green Climate Fund was established to coordinate and evaluate the projects the country presents to the Green Climate Fund. At the time of this review, the Fund was supporting two climate change projects: 1) Increased Climate Resilience of Rural Households and Communities through the Rehabilitation of Production Landscapes in Selected Localities of the Republic of Cuba and 2) Coastal Resilience to Climate Change in Cuba through Ecosystem-Based Adaptation – MI COSTA. In addition, the Fund had already approved further projects on themes such as gender, energy efficiency, and climate finance enhancements. At the time of this review, the Fund had allocated around US$ 62.1 million to Cuban climate projects.

The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, the Ministry of Economy and Planning, and other governmental institutions created the Science and Innovation Financial Fund in 2002. The Fund, which raises money through the private sector, national investments, foreign capital, and donations, finances projects related to innovation, research, development, and national priorities. Among the Fund’s priorities are confronting climate change and water management.

Task Life Projections (2021-2025) identifies as a priority the development of integrated financial strategies to better address objectives for mitigation, adaptation, and capacity building. In the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017),Task 11 addresses the management and use of available national and international financial resources in executing the investments, projects, and actions for each task of the State Plan. To achieve Task 11, Cuba has taken steps to build capacity in the country, including by implementing a climate finance strategy and creating solid cooperative networks with stakeholders such as the Green Climate Fund and the United Nations Development Program.


I) Climate change in pre-primary, primary, and secondary education

In Cuba, the Ministry of Education ensures the inclusion of environmental education in the national education system, addressing essential aspects such as risks prevention, climate change, sustainable development, and environmental conservation and protection. According to the Third National Communication (2020), the Ministry of Education has worked steadily toward the Sustainable Development Goals and the objectives of the National Plan for Economic and Social Development toward 2030 (2015), making progress toward achieving the aims of the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017) by promoting climate mitigation and adaptation. As per the Third National Communication, among the main actions in the educational system are the strengthening of teaching strategies, environmental topics, research, environmental school trips, and the inclusion of climate change into curricula, plans, methods, and institutional guidelines.

According to the Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector (2017), environmental education and disaster prevention are fundamental to the Cuban educational system from preschool through to secondary school. With support from several ministries and international agencies such as the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), different initiatives have addressed problems related to the environment, technology, health, and to natural hazards through formal and informal education. For instance, initiatives to incorporate affairs such as climate change, mitigation, sustainable development, and evacuation plans are addressed by the Perfection of the National Education System for the years 2016-2022. Students in primary and secondary schools learn in various ways, including through outdoor excursions. The Cuban curriculum aims for them to discover how to protect nature and to extend their understanding of natural environments, national emergency responses, and risk reduction. In addition, UNESCO has cooperated in implementing projects such as the Education about Climate Change for Sustainable Development in primary and secondary schools associated with UNESCO and other education institutions.

The Ministry of Education with the support of UNICEF, developed the #Project Education, children’s protagonism, educational inclusion and gender for the reduction of multi-risk disasters and resilience to climate change from schools to communities in Cuba# (2013-2019) involving 120 communities, from 15 municipalities, 5 provinces and a total of 171 schools, 18,442,00 students and 2710 directors and teachers. In the 2015-2019 period.

The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment ensures compliance with various national policies regarding environmental matters under the Macro Program for Natural Resources and Environment (2020-2023). The Macro Program addresses climate change matters, promoting environmental education initiatives, as well as the educational approaches that the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017) and the National Environmental Strategy (2016/2020) seek to implement. In addition, the Macro Program supports the implementation of the National Plan for Economic and Social Development toward 2030 (2015) and aligns with the Agenda 2030 of the Sustainable Development Goals (2015), including Sustainable Development Goal 4 (Quality Education) and Goal 13 (Climate Action).

The National Environmental Education Strategy (2010-2015) consolidated efforts to include more environmental education at the institutional level and in the national education system; for instance, by strengthening the Cuban Environmental Training Network, which, according to the Third National Communication (2020), is a key stakeholder for coordinating institutional initiatives on environmental education. In addition, the Strategy sought to improve how environmental concepts are included in the basic education curricula, to develop educational materials, and to implement environmental school certificates.

The Cuban school curriculum is divided into grades and subjects. According to the Ministry of Education’s website, primary school students begin learning Natural Sciences in primary schools starting in Grade 5. The Grade 5 Natural Sciences curriculum does not mention climate change but includes the foundations needed to understand the environment, as well as approaches to environmental conservation and protection. For instance, students will learn and interpret the environment in which they live, considering their positionality in the environment and being more conscious about the daily activities that might impact (positively or negatively) nature.

The Ministry of Education provides free textbooks for all grades and subjects, and some of these include climate change topics. For instance, the textbook Natural Sciences: Grade 7 (2012) addresses cognitive and social learning dimensions by encouraging students to learn about climate change and various national climate conditions, as well as their causes and effects. In addition, the textbook involves students in reflecting on how the climate is changing and how this can affect human populations.

The Geography 4 textbook (2004) for students in Grade 10 includes environmental content that encourages them to learn about topics related to environmental sustainability, environmental consumption, and the side effects of socio-economic activities on the environment. In addition, the textbook includes different activities for students; for example, they are invited to participate in a cognitive learning process, whereby they conduct research on energy uses, including fossil fuels, and analyze the benefits of clean energies for the environment.

Among actions to enhance environmental policies and management in the country, the National Environmental Strategy 2016/2020 includes the improvement of environmental communication and education processes for sustainable development, prioritizing the main environmental issues of the country, as well as updating environmental education content at all levels of the national education system. In addition, the Strategy fostered the development of environmental education methodologies that explain how to develop environmental education processes and, including those related to climate change. This, with the purpose of contributing to increase favorable environmental behaviors among the population, which seejs to improve people’s relationship with the environment and contributes to build a sustainable society.

According to Task Life Projections (2021-2025), Task 10 is a commitment to increase climate change knowledge and public participation. Thus, this task seeks to ensure that

“[plans] and curricula for the different educational levels and types of teaching of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Higher Education, and other training [institutions] include the dimensions of climate change and disaster prevention with the aim of improving the perception of risk in Cuban society.”

– (p. 49)

II) Climate change in teacher training and teacher resources

The Ministry of Education in Cuba administers teacher training through its Teacher Training division, coordinating and implementing policies regarding teacher training and continuous learning. At the time this report was written, teachers were receiving no climate change training. The Ministry of Education and other Cuban scientific institutions published the book Cambio Climático y Desarrollo Sostenible-Bases Conceptuales para la Educación en Cambio Climático en Cuba (2014), with the purpose of offering methodological materials and support to primary, basic secondary, pre-university and higher education teachers. The book focused on the topics of climate change, disaster risks, and sustainable development. The publication included introductory aspects of climate change and its consequences, Cuban climate situations, climate adaptation and mitigation measures, as well as assessments of risks and disasters, specifically of natural origin, related to climate change. In addition, the document included the fundamentals of sustainable development and its implementation in Cuba.

In 2014, the document Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Conceptual Bases for Education in Cuba was published to offer methodological materials and support to teachers in primary, secondary, and higher education. The document focuses on the topics of climate change, risk, and sustainable development, including introductions to climate change and its consequences, Cuban climate conditions, climate adaptation measures, as well as the evaluation of risks and disasters related to climate change. The document also includes an approach to sustainable development and its implementation in Cuba.

In parallel, a diagnostic evaluation, conducted in 2015, measured climate change knowledge and perception in 47 Cuban schools (out of a total of 76) associated with UNESCO, which allowed Cuban authorities to gather qualitative data about the performance of Cuban institutions and educational policies. The evaluation covered, 1061 principlas and teachers, which represented 42% of the total number of possible participants, and 75 administrative personnel, or 99% of potential participants. The survey evaluated climate change concepts, inclusion of climate topics in curricula, access to teaching guidelines, and activities and content implemented in schools, among others. Regarding teachers’ knowledge of climate change, 40.2% of the participants received a score of satisfactory, 26.8% very good, and 8.4 % excellent. Among the various pedagogical materials used in classrooms, teachers mentioned books, reports of events, curricula, and postgraduate theses, among others. Further, activities to encourage students to learn about climate change and sustainable development at school were highlighted, including contests, knowledge-exchange circles, school trips, presentations, and plant growing.

The books for The incorporation and integration of Education for Sustainable Development in schools, families and communities (2019), contribute to develop Education for Sustainable Development in schools by collaborating directly with families and communities. Cuban teachers, directors and educators, as well as governmental institutions in Cuba and the Dominican Republic, are working to incorporate and integrate education for Sustainable Development in schools, families, and communities.

In Cuba, the Association of Cuban Pedagogues has played an important role in teacher training since 1989. Among the Association’s objectives are to promote scientific research in the area of pedagogical sciences, the exchange of knowledge, and the dissemination of scientific research. The Association also promotes environmental education and cooperates regionally with the Ibero-American Network of Environmental Education, organizing conferences in the country.

With the support of the UNESCO Office in Havana, Cuba and the financial assistance of the Government of Japan, the Ministry of Education implemented the project “Education and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation from schools and towards communities in Cuba”, a project that published four books and five infographics for principlas and teachers to update the contents and alternatives of educational activities of the Project: “Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development (2014-2015)”, for Primary, Basic Secondary and Pre-university Education. 

In 2022, the National Workshop Seminar: Tarea Vida and the integrated approach to Disaster Risk Reduction and Actions on Climate Change was held to enhance the resilience of ecosystems and communities. It had a great impact on teacher training processes, for principals and teachers of all the country’s Pedagogical Schools.

One initiative of the Meteorological Institute of Cuba has been to make educational materials available to teachers. For instance, a book for secondary school teachers launched in 2015, Education and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation from Schools and to Communities in Cuba, contains guidelines for teachers, offering climate change content and educational activities that teachers can implement with students, such as environmental projects, group projects, creation of risk maps, and school recycling campaigns.

According to the Third National Communication (2020), a Pedagogical Congress is organized every two years in Cuba. It functions as a space for debate and knowledge exchange to seek solutions for environmental problems with an educational lens. Activities during the Congress include symposia on topics such as environmental education for sustainable development. In addition, the Pedagogical Congress website offers courses for teachers, including one on Environmental Education for Sustainable Development and Health and another on Well-Being as a Right. The 2023 Pedagogical Congress 2023 included symposia on Challenges of Initial And Continuous Teacher Training for Sustainable Development and Challenges of Higher Education before the 2030 Agenda. In addition, the Congress schedule included a talk on the environment, climate change, the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017), and education for sustainable development.

III) Climate change in higher education

In Cuba, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment has a strong focus on planning, supporting, and managing research. The Ministry administers the System of Programs and Projects of Science, Technology and Innovation (2019), which, according to the Third National Communication (2020), prioritizes research in fields that align with national policies. Since 2013, four programs of science, technology, and innovation that include climate change in Cuba have been implemented: 1) Impacts, Mitigation, and Adaptation; 2) Sustainable Use of the Components of Biological Diversity; 3) Meteorology and Sustainable Development of the Country; and 4) Development of Renewable Energy Sources.

The Ministry of Higher Education also works toward the inclusion of climate change matters in higher education. According to the Third National Communication (2020), initiatives to enhance the syllabus and prioritize topics related to climate change adaptation and mitigation have occurred in each career and discipline. The Ministry has also worked alongside national universities to develop research on climate change topics. Since 2015, more than 100 projects on research, development, and innovation have focused on priorities of the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017), including environmental education, awareness, and communication. The majority of research is disseminated and discussed in internal and national conferences, fairs, and scientific events. Since 2015, the Climate Change Conference, part of the International Convention on Environment and Development, has been held in Havana every two years. During the fourteenth conference in July 2023, there were talks and activities with titles such as Environmental Education for Sustainable Development Management (From the Company to the Community) and Education for Sustainable Development as a Public Policy Strategy in Cuba, and also reports of findings, such as Results of Environmental Education Practices in the National Geopark Viñales and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Coastal Settlement of Isabela de Sagua:The Role of Education.

Further, the Third National Communication (2020) indicates that the Ministry of Higher Education and several Cuban universities have joined forces to organize the International Conference of Higher Education, which takes place every two years. At the Conference, the academic sector dialogues and evaluates solutions for national and regional problems, including climate change and topics such as energy, environment, development, natural disasters, and food security and sovereignty. The conference held in 2022 included both higher education and the Sustainable Development Goals among its main themes.

Cuban higher education offers graduate programs in topics related to climate change. For example, the University of Holguin offers a master’s program in Environmental Management. The program aims to increase capacity in the environmental management sector with a focus on the conservation and management of natural resources, environmental conservation, environmental rehabilitation, and monitoring of the environment and human activity.

According to the Third National Communication (2020), the University of La Habana cooperates with the government on climate change action, building networks throughout the country. The University has focused on research on renewable energies. Its Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences also promotes climate change education and offers a master’s program in Environmental Management Sciences. Furthermore, the University participates in the development of the country’s National Communications.

The National Environmental Strategy 2016/2020 has prioritized research that supports the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017). The research focuses on increasing the adaptation and mitigation capacities of the economic and services sectors, in particular, and of Cuban society in general. 

According to the Five Years of Task Life (2017-2022) document, the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017) was the result of decades of development of scientific knowledge about climate change in the country. The document mentions that, as a response to Task 10 of the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change, Cuban universities and the Science, Technology and Innovation Centres (ECTIs) that are part of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment had implemented talks, graduate programs, diplomas, training, master’s degrees and doctorates involving more than 11,778 participants by 2020. For instance, Cuba Energy is an ECTI that generates valuable inputs for decision-making and implementation of technological innovations in energy, environment, and climate change fields. Among the research lines that the ECTI has developed are Evaluation of Sources and Technologies for Sustainable Energy Development and Environmental Impact Of Air Pollution Generated by Sources in the Energy Sector. In addition, the CubaEnergy offers scientific-technical services for Energy and Climate Change Studies, which support clients in understanding and applying knowledge related to energy uses and technology, as well as to climate change adaptation and mitigation.

Task Life Projections (2021-2025) prioritizes the strengthening of research in social, economic, and political sciences, integrating it into science programs linked to climate change and the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017), with the aim of consolidating results and recommendations into practice. In addition, the Projections emphasize that municipalities are responsible for increasing local research on climate change as well as on response mechanisms that can ensure communities’ resilience. As an example, municipal university centres operate under the auspices of the Ministry of Higher Education and foster higher education studies. Also, three universities and 10 municipal university centres merged to create the University of Pinar del Rio “Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca.” The University conducts research on Management of Local Sustainable Development and Management of Environmental Education and in other areas. In addition, the University offers master’s programs in Environmental Management, Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture, and Forest Science.

The Central University “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas has collaborated with researchers from different universities on the Climate Change Adaptation in Informal Settings project, which aims to understand and strengthen bottom-up initiatives in Latin America and the Caribbean. The University has participated in various research projects, such as Coastal Marine Festival: Cuban Culture and Traditions as the Foundation for Climate Change Action, The Women from the Sea: A Community Action Group to Facilitate Climate Action in Cuba, Giving a Voice to Carahatas: Consolidating Internet Use to Facilitate Communication toward Climate Change Adaptation, I Adapt: Educating Future Generation on Climate Change Risks, and Building on Popular Knowledge: Triggering Housing Adaptation to Climate Change with Technical Support and a Tool Library. The University has developed case studies, collaborated in the analysis of vulnerabilities, provided technical support, and identified regional gaps, as well as conducting a study on climate change awareness in Carahatas, analyzing educational curricula, and collaborating with local stakeholders.

According to the Center for Research and Environmental Services, postgraduate and diplomas related to environmental matters are offered on topics such as environmental management; ecology and reforestation, green production, environmental education, integrated project management, research methodology, and restoration of degraded habitats.

In 1986, the Institute of Ecology and Systematics was created. The Institute conducts research and delivers scientific-technical services as well as postgraduate training. The Institute focuses on studying biodiversity through ecological, conservation, and sustainable lenses to contribute to socio-economic development in Cuba and the Caribbean. Among the Institute’s research projects is Conservation and Management of Vertebrates in the Sierra del Rosario Biosphere Reserve as a Basis for the Study of Climate Change.

IV) Climate change in training and adult learning

The Ministry of Education in Cuba is responsible for Technical and Vocational Education in the country, which aims to strengthen people’s capacities to enhance the economic and social development of the country. At the time this report was written, the technical and vocational education system offered 103 specialties, although it was not specified if climate change topics were included among them.

Cuba has made efforts to increase capacity in facing climate change. For instance, Five Years of Task Life (2017-2022) mentions that municipal university centres have been bolstered. The centres have been essential in the training of local government and local actors, influencing and strengthening sustainable agriculture, environment, and energy matters to better fight against climate change.

As per the Third National Communication (2020), the Ministry of Agriculture has joined efforts to tackle climate change through the Agrarian Network on Climate Change, which facilitates research and conducts training on climate adaptation and mitigation in the agricultural sector of the country. The National Communication mentions that more than 200 professionals from scientific institutions affiliated with the Ministry of Agriculture had benefited from the Agrarian Network’s climate change courses.

Further, Five Years of Task Life (2017-2022) highlights the international project Environmental Bases for Local Food Sustainability, implemented in 2015, which has built capacity in the agricultural sector. Because of this project and national policies, the creation of school farms has increased the capacity of cooperatives and of agricultural producers throughout the country, including the introduction of clean technologies and the strengthening of supply chains.

The Pedagogical Congress has provided a focal point for discussing the development of Technical and Vocational Education and Training development in the country. For instance, a symposium at the 2023 Pedagogical Congress, Alliances of Technical and Vocational Training with Economic Actors for Sustainable Development, highlighted technical and vocational education and training as key to overcoming knowledge and skills challenges when implementing the Sustainable Development Goals, thanks to its multisectoral contribution (economic, social, and environmental).

International cooperation that enhances capacity building also occurs in Cuba. For instance, the Green Climate Fund supports the implementation of the project Increased Climate Resilience of Rural Households and Communities through the Rehabilitation of Production Landscapes in Selected Localities of the Republic of Cuba, which includes initiatives to raise the capacity of communities. By 2021, the project had already benefited around 3,643 people, including 654 public workers, through training on topics such as resilience, inclusive communication, environmental safety procedures, and gender equality. In addition, around 51,098 farming families received training through exchange of experience and dissemination of good environmental practices.

Further, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment oversees the project Insertion of the Climatic Dimension in the Planning of Territorial Development in Cuba with the support of international stakeholders such as the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation. The project began in 2021 and was to finish in December 2023. It was expected that the project would strengthen institutional and technical capacity at the territorial level, integrating climate dimensions into Cuban municipal development strategies. Four municipalities have participated in the project, benefiting around 215,936 inhabitants through awareness campaigns, training courses, and monitoring and reporting procedures. All of these actions were planned to benefit sectors like tourism, energy, agriculture, education, and health.

The Center for Research and Environmental Services offers training on environmental topics related to corporate environmental management, ecology and reforestation, green production, and popular environmental education. Other institutions create and disseminate environmental knowledge, for example, the Martin Luther King Center and the Center for Education and Promotion for Sustainable Development (CEPRODESO). Indeed, besides offering environmental training options, CEPRODESO also promotes the redesign or creation of new educational models based in public and free education, with the purpose of solving environmental problems.

According to the Third National Communication (2020), Youth Networks also contribute to efforts in environmental and climate education and capacity building, similarly to the Cuban Environmental Training Network. For instance, the Youth Environmental Network of Cuba has been tackling environmental problems in the country since 2007 by focusing on strengthening the capacities for action of children, adolescents, and young people and by fostering sustainable development values. The network is involved in various activities, such as community work, waste-collection campaigns, and virtual courses.


I) Climate change and public awareness

According to the Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience, the Ministry of Education has worked on the Education, Leadership and Gender Project from 2013 to 2019, with support from United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and other ministries. The project has focused on developing leadership in children and adolescents, as well as in their families and communities, through learning new knowledge and skills in disaster mitigation and prevention linked to climate change. In 2018, the Ministry of Education started to focus on enhancing a multi-risk early-warning system in communities through the project Education, Child Leadership, Educational Inclusion and Gender for the Reduction of Multi-Risk Disasters and Resilience to Climate Change from Schools to Communities in Cuba.

As part of the same project, the Ministry of Education and UNICEF organized the campaign My Action for the Planet, which was launched in Cuba on World Environmental Day in 2021. The campaign targeted youth from six provinces of the country and focused on promoting youth empowerment and leadership in inclusive management of risks and resilience against the impacts of climate change. The campaign included different types of communication products such as podcasts, radio spots, audiovisual materials, and animated activities. For instance, the cartoon video (My Action for the Animated Planet, No. 1) encourages children to fight against climate change, emphasizing that child and youth participation is essential to mitigate climate change and ensure a sustainable future. Educational and awareness-raising workshops were also included. Youth participants mentioned that they had learned about topics such as climate resilience and climate justice as a result of the workshop activities, which included creating videos and posters.

The National Environmental Strategy (2016/2020) noted that, despite continual efforts to sensitize people about climate and environmental issues, there were still gaps in people’s responses. Thus, an increase in the creation of materials for different sectors in the country is proposed to raise awareness about environmental and climate change topics and to foster feelings of responsibility toward environmental conservation among the population, thereby allowing them to improve their relationship with the environment and build a more sustainable society.

Regarding the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017), Task 10 focuses on strengthening people’s knowledge and awareness of climate change to increase adaptation to its adverse impacts. Task Life Projections (2021-2025) identifies Task 10 as a high priority, and thus, it is to be achieved by 2030. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, which is responsible for Task 10, integrates and coordinates initiatives with various stakeholders such as the Ministry of Education.

The contest; Children and the Sea: The National Aquarium of Cuba, in compliance with the Ministry of Education is an educational activity in topics related to climate change, its causes and effects on marine ecosystems are integrated and incorporated. Special mention should be made of the Children and the Sea Scientific Conferences, which are held annually and now total 25, in which research work carried out by students from all educational levels and Cuban provinces is presented. Through drawings, letters, games, presentations, songs, research, videos, reports, among other modalities, students can learn and act for the protection of maritime, port and coastal resources, highlighting in this program the contribution of families and communities, as well as institutions.

The Ministry of Agriculture oversees Cultivate Awareness, which is a communication project that connects science with the use of sustainable approaches in agriculture. The project’s Facebook account continually posts information regarding national agricultural conditions, sustainable production, soil use, environmental conservation, and climate change, among other topics. For instance, posts on the effects of climate change on crop yields as well as preventive solutions are available.

The Directorate of Geology from the Ministry of Energy and Mines runs monthly conferences under the theme Geological Time to generate and exchange knowledge, as well as to disseminate information to students in related disciplines and to the general public. The topic of climate change is included in the conferences; for example, in February 2023, a talk on Cuba: The Karst, Groundwater and Climate Change covered the importance of groundwater and karst in Cuba, climate change consequences, and proposed solutions.

Non-governmental organizations also collaborate in raising awareness of environmental and climate change matters in Cuba. In particular, the Antonio Núñez Jiménez Foundation of Nature and Man develops projects and actions to raise awareness about the sustainable use of natural resources. The Foundation also promotes dialogue within civil society, capacity building, and the search for environmental solutions, including environmental. The Foundation’s Facebook account frequently shares information about climate change, for example, information about World Climate Day, highlighting the causes and consequences of climate change, as well as actions to reduce its impact.

The ECOARTE program was created in 1996 in Moa Municipality, Holguin, to focus on environmental education. The aim of the program is to increase active and conscious community participation in building strong environmental culture, education, and ethics in the country. To achieve this, the program includes protection activities such as reforestation, beach cleaning, recovery of raw materials, plastic and nylon recycling, as well as visits to open-pit mines, talks, conferences, use of audiovisual materials, literature. and art contests.

According to the Third National Communication (2020), the Government of Cuba has used various methods to raise awareness in the country. Since 2014, the country has run national campaigns on World Environmental Day to promote environmental culture, focusing on climate change adaptation. Other initiatives have included publications, books, and audiovisual materials that have been disseminated by Cuban Television and on social media. The Third National Communication also mentions that several television and radio channels continually feature climate change and environmental topics, applying four functional dimensions: educate, orientate, disseminate, and inform. In addition, the Educational Channel of Cuban Television has transmitted courses on climate change and on danger, vulnerability, and risk, as well as interviews with expert and life stories of people from vulnerable zones.

II) Climate change and public access to information

The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment offers diverse information on its website, including about climate change issues, legislation, news, and summaries of the policies that the country is implementing, such as the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017) and the Macro Program for Natural Resources and Environment. In addition, the Ministry operates social media accounts (for example, Facebook, Twitter, Telegram and YouTube), posting information about activities, including those related to climate change.

The Agency of Environment offers information on its website, including sections on different climate change. The website also contains environmental legislation, national news, and information about national and international projects. In addition, the Agency operates a Cuba Environmental Portal that stores environmental information, including descriptions of government agencies and society organizations, publications, national protected areas, and a video library. Further, the portal offers educational materials under the rubric University For All that enable people to learn about topics such as Energy and Climate Change, Law and Environment, and Protected Areas of Cuba and Conservation of Natural Heritage. People are encourage to pursue graduate studies on the University and Environment page, where they can find information about institutions and about graduate programs on environmental issues offered across the country.

The Meteorological Institute of Cuba operates the website Climate Change Cuba, which offers extensive information on climate change to the public, including climate monitoring, research results, news, national reports, and case studies. The website also contains a section on education and communication that highlights efforts to use research to support the updating of educational plans and communication actions with scientific research, particularly with regard to impacts of climate change and to adaptation and mitigation measures. The website covers a variety of topics that can promote better understanding of climate change topics, such as Danger Scenarios and Vulnerability in the Cuban Coastal Zone, Synthesis of Information on Climate Change, Adaptation to Climate Change in Cuba, Understanding Climate Change Mitigation, as well as materials that mainly focus on teacher training.

The Meteorological Institute of Cuba also operates the Cuban Meteorological Magazine website, through which the academic sector can disseminate information and research results obtained in the field of meteorological science on topics such as climate change, marine and agricultural meteorology, monitoring of climate and air quality. The website targets specialists, researchers, professors, and students, although it is freely accessible to the public. For instance, the article “Task Life: Health Actions to Face Climate Change in Different Contexts in the Province of Granma,” published in 2022, illustrates the use of Task Life policy in the country. The aim of the article’s authors was to design actions by the Cuban health system, from scientific, health, and environmental perspectives, after evaluating the environmental vulnerability of locations with high vulnerability to climate changethat led to negative side effects for human health. 

The Third National Communication (2020) provides an in-depth description of how Cuba offers free access to information on climate change. The Communication mentions various websites, including Climate Change Cuba, regional websites such as PRECIS Caribe, and the Environment Portal, all of which offer up-to-date information about climate change impacts, monitoring, evaluation, environmental legislation, environmental education, news, publications, and adaptive measures.

III) Climate change and public participation

In Cuba, the Constitution (2019) guarantees public participation in educational policymaking : the State “promotes citizen participation in the implementation of its educational, scientific and cultural policy”(ARTICLE.32d).

Despite efforts to enhance public participation in environmental and climate change policymaking, the National Environmental Strategy (2016/2020) mentioned that institutional and civil participation in proposing, action, and decision-making processes related to environmental issues is still limited. The Strategy included, among its specific objectives, strengthening environmental management and policies. Moreover, in its climate change section, the Strategy contemplated the implementation of new mechanisms for participation, such as public consultations and access to information, to encourage all stakeholders to participate in the development and monitoring of environmental regulations and climate change actions.

Through the National Environmental Education Strategy (2010-2015), the country guaranteed participatory procedures within the basic guidelines for the development of the environmental education process to contribute to sustainable development. The Strategy stated that participation in environmental education would mean building new methodologies and techniques that considered the interests and criteria of stakeholders. An extensive consultation process that included multiple stakeholders accompanied the development of the Strategy.

According to the Nationally Determined Contribution (2020-2030) (2020), the objectives of Task 10 of the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017) include increasing public participation in climate change matters This objective is prioritized as an adaptive measure, this objective and contributes to climate knowledge and to culture, with the aim of encouraging more participation in climate action.

Public consultations were part of the preparation for the Third National Communication (2020) According to the Communication, civil society, including non-governmental organizations, participated in the consultations on the final document.


I) Country monitoring

The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment was to begin reporting on two indicators in 2023: 1) the Environmental Quality Index, which evaluates a country’s environmental conditions in terms of people’s needs for maintaining health and quality of life and 2) the Ecological Footprint Index, which quantifies the national environmental impact of resource consumption and waste production. The Climate Resilience Index was also to be measured beginning in 2023. This index, which supports the implementation of the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change (2017), assesses ecosystems and human capacity to prevent, adapt, and recover from climate change effects.

Ongoing evaluation and monitoring are expected to accompany the implementation of the State Plan for Confronting Climate Change, including for climate change education. Task Life Projections (2021-2025) sets targets for the years 2025 and 2030 that include the creation of a strong indicator framework by 2030 that could be used by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, as well as the strengthening of climate education, awareness, and participation.

According to the Third National Communication (2020), the National Statistics and Information Office annually publishes an Environmental Panorama that reports on indicators of the environmental situation in Cuba, as well as the mechanisms that the country is using to tackle environmental issues. In addition, the Office offers statistical information on sectors such as education, agriculture, environment, and energy.

Further, the Meteorological Institute of Cuba operates a Climate Vigilance system that monitors the climate and forecasts future weather, with the aim of providing information about possible impacts using early-warning systems. The system does not monitor climate change communication and education, but it publishes a monthly Climate Vigilance Newsletter, which enables the public to follow national information related to precipitation, temperature, and extreme weather indicators.

According to the Sustainable Development Report (2022), Cuba still faced challenges with Sustainable Development Goal 4 (Quality Education), since the country’s achievement has not increased to the required level. Nevertheless, the country had achieved Sustainable Development Goal 13 (Climate Action) and was continuing its efforts to maintain this level of achievement. The report does not specify the scores for Target 4.7 (education for sustainable development) and Target 13.3 (climate education).

II) MECCE Project Monitoring

The Monitoring and Evaluating Climate Communication and Education (MECCE) Project reviewed the Grade 5 Natural Sciences curriculum (2019), the textbooks for Natural Sciences: Grade 7 (2012) and for Geography 4 (2004) for Grade 10 students for references to ‘climate change,’ ‘sustainability,’ ‘biodiversity,’ and the ‘environment.’

The Grade 5 Natural Sciences curriculum (2019) mentions the term ‘environment’ 11 times, but ‘climate,’ ‘sustainability,’ and ‘biodiversity’ are not included in the document.

The Natural Sciences: Grade 7 textbook (2012) includes the term ‘climate change’ 15 times. The term ‘environment’ is mentioned 94 times, but ‘sustainability’ and ‘biodiversity’ only once each.

The Geography 4 textbook (2004) for Grade 10 mentions the term ‘climate change’ once. The term ‘environment’ is found 51 times and ‘sustainability’ 6 times, but ‘biodiversity’ is not mentioned.

This section will be updated as the MECCE Project develops.

This profile was reviewed by: 

Dr. C. Orestes Valdés Valdés, Specialist in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development, Directorate of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Cuba