CCE Country Profile


Table of Contents

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This profile has been reviewed by country experts.


I) Climate change context

Cameroon is located in Central Africa below the Gulf of Guinea and covers 475,650 square kilometres. According to the country’s Second National Communication (2015), Cameroon has a population of 28.6 million, growing at 2.5% annually. 

The country has diverse climatic zones, making it susceptible to various climate change impacts. The World Bank Country Climate and Development Report states that while the southwest of the country encompasses hot and humid coastal and rainforest areas, the mountainous regions in the northern region have a milder climate, and the rest of the northern area has desert areas that are hot and dry. Therefore, each region faces distinct challenges and vulnerabilities associated with climate change, but most vulnerabilities include drought, violent winds, floods, landslides and slips, and erosion. 

According to the World Bank (2021), climate change in Cameroon affects more than 70% of the population, mainly the various Indigenous groups, conflict-affected areas, and farmers whose main source of livelihood is agriculture, especially in the coastal and northern areas. 

The Carbon Atlas indicates that Cameroon’s carbon emissions were 0.3 tCO2 per capita in 2021. According to the Second National Communication (2015) in Cameroon, sectors contributing most significantly to pollution are agriculture; energy; industrial processes; waste; and land use, land-use change, and forestry. Climate Watch shows that industrial processes contribute 47% of emissions, land use, land-use change, and forestry contribute 27%, energy contributes 16%, agriculture contributes 13%, and waste contributes 3%. 

Cameroon is categorized as a non-Annex I country under the United Nations Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC), and the country ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 and the Paris Agreement in 2016.

II) Relevant government agencies

Climate change

The Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection, and Sustainable Development in Cameroon is the main Agency for coordinating, monitoring, and directing all climate change activities in the country. The Ministry holds the responsibility for developing and executing government policy on environment and nature protection, aiming at fostering sustainable development. The United Nations Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC) has not listed any Government Ministry or Department on its website as the Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) Focal Point for Cameroon. The Ministry has two organizations working under it: 1) the National Observatory on Climate Change and 2) the Inter-regional Drought Control Committee. 

The National Observatory on Climate Change was established in 2009. Since 2019, it has been a public institution with financial autonomy overseen by the Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection, and Sustainable Development while its budget is overseen by the Ministry of Finances. The Observatory aims to contribute to the socio-economic development of the country by combating climate change and promoting a low-carbon and climate-resilient country. Moreover, the Observatory plays a crucial role in monitoring, researching, and addressing climate change, because it collects and analyses data related to climate change and supports work on strategies and policies for climate change adaptation, mitigation, and capacity building in the country.

The Department of Demographic and Social Statistics is responsible for, among other activities, coordinating the production of statistics on the social sectors, particularly for health, education and gender, and producing study reports on the thematic areas of the environment, climate change, and sustainable development. The Department includes a division that focuses on environmental statistics and climate change.

The Ministry of Transport in Cameroon houses the Department of National Meteorology. The Department collaborates with a variety of partners such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development to circulate climate information to farmers and diverse demographic groups within the nation via community radio. To ensure the widespread distribution of climate data, the Department actively engages with numerous partners and stakeholders in Cameroon. For example, in 2020, the Department coordinated a multi-stakeholder training programme that included ministries, media representatives, and farmers—who are the primary consumers of agrometeorological information—to enhance the processes for gathering and disseminating such vital data.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is involved in formulating and implementing policies, strategies, and plans to promote sustainable agricultural and rural development. The Ministry is responsible for food security programs and initiatives that ensure a stable and sufficient food supply for the population. The Ministry also provides support and training to farmers.

The Ministry of Energy and Water Resources oversees activities related to energy production and distribution and water resource management in the country. The Ministry regulates and supervises electricity generation, transmission, and distribution. The Ministry is also involved in the development and management of hydropower projects to generate electricity and the expansion of access to clean energy services, particularly in rural and underserved areas.

The Ministry of Forests and Wildlife is responsible for the sustainable management and conservation of Cameroon’s forests. As part of its activities, the Ministry involves local communities in forest and wildlife conservation, particularly through community-based natural resource management programs. The Ministry is also in charge of monitoring programs to assess the state of forests, wildlife populations, and biodiversity in Cameroon.

Among the non-governmental organizations that collaborate with the government, a few examples are provided: the Centre for Environment and Development, which is concerned with the protection of natural resources particularly for Indigenous populations. The organization is dedicated to advocating for the rights, interests, culture, and aspirations of local and Indigenous communities within the country. It also promotes environmental justice and sustainable management of natural resources. This organization is part of a larger global movement, The Friends of Earth International. The Centre for Environment and Development actively engages in initiatives aimed at strengthening policies to tackle climate threats at the local level. This involves identifying courses of action and executing pilot projects on solar energy, formulation of forestry and land policies, allocation of extensive concessions, infrastructure development, and adherence to climate commitments.

The International Centre for Environmental Education and Community Development (ICENECDEV) is a non-governmental organization that works closely with the government on climate issues. The organization is pivotal in addressing climate change through multiple initiatives, emphasizing sustainable practices in forest and waste management, renewable energy, and agriculture. The Centre champions environmental education in schools, prisons, and local communities. 

The German International Cooperation (GIZ) in Cameroon works closely with the government, non-governmental agencies, and local communities on climate change projects and policy. GIZ is also engaged in rural development initiatives in the country to assist the government in fortifying community resilience to climate impacts, ensuring food security, and enhancing employment prospects. This is especially essential for Indigenous forest communities in the country who traditionally sustain themselves by practising hunting and forestry.

The World Wide Fund for Nature–Cameroon collaborates with partners to advance renewable energy services in the country, aiming to foster socio-economic development, enhance the quality of life, and mitigate impacts on ecosystems. The Fund incorporates climate change risks into its initiatives and influences local and national adaptation planning processes with the goal of contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals and augmenting the role of adaptation in Cameroon’s Nationally Determined Contributions.

Education and communication

The Ministry of Basic Education oversees nursery education and primary education for children aged 4–12 years in the two subsystems (English and French). The goal of nursery education in Cameroon is to awaken the child’s physical, socio-emotional, and intellectual potential to prepare them for entry into primary school. In the various available documents for basic education, there is no reference to climate change.

Formal education in Cameroon is managed by the Cameroon Ministry of Secondary Education (MINESEC) and the Ministry of Higher Education (MINESUP). The Ministry of Secondary Education is tasked with implementing and developing governmental policies and programs in the realm of higher education. The Ministry of Higher Education advises the government on aligning higher education with national socio-economic needs, focusing on the relevance of such education to the national economy, and collaborating with both public and private sectors. The Ministry’s Inspectorate General of Education oversees the evaluation and adaptation of the educational system and pedagogy using scientific progress, and manages relationships in research and training programs. The Ministry of Higher Education oversees each higher institution in partnership with that institution. However, there is no explicit mention of a specific focus on climate change within the educational priorities of the Cameroonian education system both for MINESEC and MINESUP. 

The Ministry of Higher Education is responsible for supervising and coordinating higher education institutions within the nation. Through its pivotal role, it significantly influences the trajectory of higher education in Cameroon by ensuring that universities and other higher learning establishments maintain educational quality standards. In pursuit of this objective, the Ministry of Higher Education has the responsibility of crafting policies and strategies designed to cultivate and broaden higher education in Cameroon. A primary role of this office is to streamline the accessibility of higher education, ensuring that it is accessible to everyone, while simultaneously promoting equitable educational opportunities for students, regardless of their socio-economic backgrounds.

The Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training is primarily responsible for overseeing activities related to labour and training by developing and implementing policies to promote employment and facilitating vocational training programs. The Ministry works towards ensuring that individuals are equipped with skills relevant to green and sustainable industries and by encouraging employment opportunities in sectors that contribute to environmental conservation and sustainable development.

III) Relevant laws, policies, and plans

Climate change

The Constitution of Cameroon (2008) highlights that the State is responsible for protecting and promoting the environment because all people have a right to live in a healthy environment. Cameroon’s Prime Ministerial Decree No.103/CAB/PM of 2012 is an essential instrument for the country to address and mitigate climate change impacts through the reduction of emissions. 

Cameroon’s Law N° 2011/022, established in 2011, was crafted to govern the country’s electricity sector. The Law emphasizes a strong commitment to integrating climate change considerations into its energy development strategy. This law, particularly in Part IV, underscores the significance of renewable energy, aiming to transition away from traditional fossil fuels toward more sustainable energy sources. In addition to championing energy efficiency, the legislation prioritizes rural electrification using renewable energy sources, aiming to bridge the urban-rural divide. Through this comprehensive regulatory framework, Cameroon delineates a vision for a sustainable, resilient, and inclusive electricity sector that aligns with global climate change mitigation efforts.

Cameroon’s National Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (2015), developed by the Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection, and Sustainable Development, underscores the nation’s commitment to proactive climate action. With inputs from notable development entities like GIZ and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), this plan provides a holistic blueprint that acknowledges the nation’s unique climatic challenges and outlines strategies for effective adaptation. The underlying principle of the Policy is that adaptation is not just about climate resilience but also about steering the nation toward sustainable growth. It emphasizes that the country’s developmental objectives should be in harmony with its climate change adaptation strategies to ensure a resilient, prosperous, and sustainable future.

Cameroon’s development vision, articulated in the National Development Strategy 2020–2030 (2020), has four objectives: 1) To foster an environment favourable for economic growth, amass national wealth, and drive structural changes that enable industrialization; 2) To uplift the living conditions of its citizens by granting better access to essential services, while substantially reducing poverty and underemployment rates; 3) To increase climate resilience by accentuating both mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change, ensuring the sustainability of both economic growth and social development; and 4) To refine governance structures to maximize the efficacy of public interventions, therefore achieving the outlined development targets. 

Cameroon’s Second National Communication (2015), formulated by the Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection, and Sustainable Development, serves as a comprehensive document detailing the country’s actions and achievements concerning climate change, with a particular emphasis on communication and education. Recognizing the substantial vulnerability of Cameroon to changing climate patterns, the document delineates both the opportunities available for mitigation and adaptation and the milestones already achieved toward building resilience. A salient feature of the report is its emphasis on the country’s susceptibility to climate change–induced risks, detailing the multifaceted challenges posed by factors such as changing rainfall patterns, rising temperatures, and increased frequency of extreme weather events. The Communication also proposes adaptive and mitigative measures; however, none are related to climate change communication and education.

Education and communication

Law No. 98/004 (1998) provides a framework for the country’s education system. The Law seeks to organize and disseminate scientific, cultural, professional, and ethical knowledge to students. 

The education system in Cameroon operates under the guidance of Education Orientation Law No. 98/004 (1998). This system encompasses various levels of education, including early childhood education (nursery education), elementary education (primary education), post-primary education, teacher training, secondary education, and higher education. The Law reaffirms Cameroon’s commitment to national biculturalism through the establishment of two subsystems: the French-speaking subsystem and the English-speaking subsystem. Law No 005/2001 (2001) guides higher education, and the recently enacted Law No 2018/010 (2018) governs vocational training.

Cameroon has made efforts to promote transparency and access to information, notably with Law No. 2010/022 (2010) on access to information.

Cameroon’s National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015) underscores the evident gap in climate change education in the country. The Plan advocates for the embedding of fundamental climate change concepts within the Cameroonian educational system. It presses for a provisional educational policy to effectively anchor the mainstreaming of climate change. To bridge the knowledge gap at the grassroots, the Plan emphasizes the importance of incorporating climate change knowledge into informal educational programs tailored for farmers, while also championing robust public awareness campaigns to enlighten stakeholders, especially within the agricultural sector. A cornerstone of this strategy is increasing the capacity of educators; hence, the Plan suggests that the government undertake initiatives to equip teachers with the requisite knowledge on climate change, further enriching training materials and resources to enhance the pedagogical experience.

IV) Terminology used for climate communication and education

In Cameroon, a variety of terms are used to describe climate change communication and education. Non-governmental organizations in the climate change sector frequently use terms like ‘environmental education,’ ‘climate education,’ ‘capacity building,’ ‘climate awareness,’ ‘information sharing,’ and ‘training.’ In formal education, ‘climate research’ is a common term, while informal education and communication often refer to ‘public awareness.’ Funding documents, particularly those submitted to the Green Climate Fund, typically use ‘training and public awareness’ to signify climate change communication and education. The country’s Second National Communication (2015) employs terms such as ‘capacity building,’ ‘education,’ ‘awareness,’ and ‘sensitization’ in relation to climate change.

V) Budget for climate communication and education

Cameroon has committed a substantial amount of funds to climate change both from internal and external sources.

The World Bank is an ardent funder for Cameroon’s climate efforts. In June 2023, the World Bank approved over US$ 300 million for the Enhancing Connectivity and Resilience in the Far North of Cameroon for Inclusiveness Project for Cameroon. The allocated funds are aimed at bolstering connectivity and climate resilience, facilitating access to essential infrastructure, and helping communities build resilience to climate change in the Far North of Cameroon, with the goal of enhancing their safety and climate change resilience. However, there is no specific amount allocated for climate change communication and education. According to the National Climate and Development Report (2022), Cameroon envisions that US$ 58 billion will be allocated for adaptation and mitigation measures, resulting in a 1% GDP growth by 2050.

The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has allocated funds to support Cameroon in addressing climate change, with the country recently receiving over US$ 2,000,000 for related activities. According to the GEF website, more than US$ 10 million has been invested in recently concluded climate change projects in Cameroon. However, the provided figures do not specify the amount designated or expended specifically on climate change communication and education within the country.

The Green Climate Fund has, in the recent past, allocated over US$ 58 million to Cameroon for projects related to climate change. In 2021, the Green Climate Fund awarded a grant of US$ 9,681,000 for a project to enhance the resilience against floods and landslides in the coastal city of Limbe, Cameroon. This project placed a strong emphasis on climate change communication and education, allocating over US$ 700,000 toward education, vocational training, and capacity building on climate change. This included the development of curricula and teaching tools, specialized training, continuing education, scholarships, and support for research in climate change. In 2020, a US$ 10 million grant was approved for a project to enhance climate resilience in local communities across six sites in Cameroon. While the project proposal highlighted a focus on climate change training and raising awareness of climate change resilience techniques, the budget breakdown did not specify the amount designated for these aspects of climate change communication and education.

The African Development Bank (AfDB) reported that between 2015 and 2020, Cameroon secured slightly over US$ 162.4 million annually for climate change initiatives, in line with its commitment under the Paris Agreement. However, the details regarding the allocation of these funds do not specify the amount dedicated to climate change communication and education.


I) Climate change in pre-primary, primary, and secondary education

According to the Grade 2 Curriculum for Primary French-speaking Education (2018), students are expected to define the concept of climate change and identify its causes and consequences. The Grade 3 Curriculum for Primary French-speaking Education (2019) outlines that students will describe the manifestations of climate change and its effects in human life. Students are also expected to learn measures against climate change and foster a sense of respect for the environment and people. 

The Ministry of Secondary Education in Cameroon states that primary education is fundamental and obligatory because it is essential for individual development. The Ministry emphasizes the importance of individuals acquiring essential skills such as reading, writing, basic arithmetic, and the exploration of their surroundings. According to the Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015), although the issues and themes of sustainable development are already part of the curriculum, climate change issues are not included in secondary school curricula. 

According to the Ministry of Secondary Education, climate issues are first presented to students during Grades 5 and 6 as part of Geography. The Geography curriculum incorporates modules such as ‘preservation of the environment,’ in which students learn about climate change adaptation and environmentally friendly practices.

The Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015) states that the target of the Education, Research, and Vocational Training sector is “adapting the education system to climate change and integrating the issues of climate change in the training and research programs” (p. 76). This target is accomplished by encouraging and supporting research to better understand Cameroon’s climate and reducing pupils’ and students’ exposure to extreme climate events through education and training.

One of the main targets in the education research and vocational training sector in the Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015) is adapting the education system to climate change and integrating the issues of climate change into the training and research programs. This is accomplished by encouraging research and scientific publications on climate change and adaptation in Cameroon and developing programs and projects in certain disciplines like geography, chemistry, environment, social sciences, and technology that will encourage learners to better respond to the threats of climate change. For instance, the 2023 initiative ‘Youth-led Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation for Sustainable Urban Development provides urban youth in Cameroon with an opportunity to transform scrap metal into energy-efficient cookstoves. This initiative also enables young individuals to earn income while simultaneously decreasing the need for wood fuel.

Green Cameroon is a non-governmental agency that is involved in climate change education. The organization promotes environmental education and climate change awareness by engaging youth in environmental protection and biodiversity conservation and fostering a shift in community attitudes toward these crucial issues. Since 2006, the organization has established over 100 clubs in primary schools, initiating a wide array of conservation projects. These range from designing plays for environmental awareness to implementing tree nurseries, flower gardens, fruit orchards, environmental corners, river cleanups, and waste disposal and recycling schemes. 

Environmental Education for a Better Earth Cameroon is a non-profit that is involved in empowering young people in schools and communities to combat climate change through sustainability, environmental and climate change education on a weekly basis. They also empower young people in environmentally friendly income-generating activities. Since 2020, they have been working with 5 schools in collaboration with other organizations, and over 1,500 students have benefited from their activities. They created an interactive after-school curriculum on sustainability and climate change education in 2021..

Another initiative is the Climate Change Workshops for Young People, developed in 2015, which highlighted that because youth will likely confront the most severe repercussions of climate change, they represent the future leaders and play a vital role within their communities. However, the initiative indicates that for youth to be able to fulfill this role effectively, they need to acquire pertinent competencies. This workshop was established to empower young individuals with the knowledge and skills required to address environmental and climate change–related issues within their schools and echo the message to their families and communities.

II) Climate change in teacher training and teacher resources

According to Cameroon’s National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015), there is a need to educate and train both teachers and students regarding climate change. This will be done through a strategy devised within the programs for integrated and global approaches to climate change adaptation that will incorporate modules for climate change education into Cameroon’s educational systems.

In addition, the Strategy to Integrate Training on Adaptation to Climate Change Within the Educational System of Cameroon (2017) specifies the integration of climate change and adaptation into the syllabus of teacher-training colleges such as the Normal School of General Education Teachers, Normal School of Technical Education, Ecole Normale Supérieure, and Higher Normal School of Technical Education. Additionally, the creation of new courses focused on climate change and adaptation has been proposed for institutions that lack subjects related to climate change. This suggestion has also been put forth by the authorities of teacher training colleges. Since 2022, Environmental Education for a Better Earth Cameroon engaged in training volunteers, composed of graduates and professionals to facilitate climate change education in schools on a weekly basis throughout the academic year, using their interactive after-school curriculum on sustainability and climate change education.

In March 2023, the British High Commission hosted a two-day teacher workshop in Cameroon focused on instructing educators about the importance of educating students on climate change and the imperative of mitigating its adverse impacts. The workshop revolved around the theme ‘Global Inequalities and Climate Crisis: Using Classroom Resources to Teach Climate Change in Cameroon.’

The Education for Sustainable Development Initiative, supported by the World Wide Fund for Nature, seeks to inspire and enable learners to actively address the conservation and developmental issues facing their communities, countries, and the global community. In addition to student involvement, there is a strong emphasis on training teachers. The ongoing capacity-building efforts for teachers and the development of instructional manuals will enhance the effectiveness of teaching, with a particular focus on fostering the action-oriented competencies of young students in schools. This initiative encompasses critical aspects of sustainable development, including but not limited to climate change, disaster risk reduction, biodiversity preservation, poverty alleviation, and promoting sustainable consumption.

III) Climate change in higher education

The Nationally Determined Contributions (2021) document lays out the government actions required to deal with climate change on all levels. In the context of higher education, the government “plan[s] to work with the Ministry of Higher Education to develop new curricula to meet the capacity needs of the climate finance sector and the greening of the economy” (p. 56). 

According to the Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015), to achieve the goal set for the Education, Research, and Vocational Training sector, it is essential to incorporate climate change adaptation into academic curricula. Furthermore, the Plan stipulates that each region or agro-ecological zone should develop its own climate change adaptation education and awareness programme.

Higher education institutions in Cameroon fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Higher Education and have a mandate encompassing education, scientific, and technical research; development assistance; social advancement; and the promotion of science, culture, and national awareness. In Cameroon, there are eight universities, with four having departments in environmental sciences, geography, or renewable energies. In particular, the University of Bamenda, the University of Buea, the University of Maroua and the University of Dschang have departments of environmental sciences, geography, or renewable energies, and also have experts in climatology or renewable energies involved in research projects related to climate change. Since 2015, the University of Dschang has offered a Master’s degree in Climate Change, Biodiversity, and the Circular Economy, and the Higher Institute of Agriculture and Management of Obala has also integrated climate change–related content into its curriculum by addressing topics such adaptation to climate change and sustainable agroecological practices.

The Ministry of Higher Education is currently discussing how to effectively integrate climate change into the curricula of state universities, which is a critically relevant matter because the impacts and consequences of climate change are widely recognized and experienced in Cameroon. While the process for modifying university syllabi falls under the purview of university staff and administrators, the Ministry has the potential to influence and introduce comprehensive enhancements related to climate change into the curricula of all state universities. 

The successful implementation of these improvements will be advantageous for all stakeholders. Currently, the country is focusing on the Elaboration of a Strategy to Integrate Training on Adaptation to Climate Change Within the Educational System of Cameroon. The Ministry aims to include a report encompassing distinct objectives, reasoning, validation, and concrete outcomes for incorporating climate change and adaptation. Furthermore, a task force will be created with the objective of brainstorming and devising practical approaches for the comprehensive integration of climate change–related topics.

IV) Climate change in training and adult learning

At the time of this review, according to the Cameroon TVET country profile (2022), the country lacks an institution tasked with acknowledging formal and informal qualifications. The various ministries overseeing Technical and Vocational Education and Training independently establish their unique criteria for training evaluation and certification. The Cameroon country report of African Continental Qualifications Framework (2020) details the administration of the education and training system in Cameroon that exhibits a multifaceted institutional framework, featuring four principal ministries with key roles: the Ministry of Basic Education, The Ministry of Secondary Education, the Ministry of Higher Education, and the Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training. Various other ministries contribute to skills development, including the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries, and Animal Industries. Lastly, the Ministry of Economy, Planning, and Regional Development is responsible for coordinating the overarching strategic planning for the education and training sector.

The existing framework that steers the government’s policy and activities within the education and training sector is delineated in the Education and Training Sector Strategy Paper (2023), which guides government action in the education and training sector. 

In 2020, the National Development Strategy 2020–2030 (NDS30) was officially presented. Its main goals are to strengthen climate change adaptation, mitigate the effects of climate change, ensure environmental management that promotes sustainable and inclusive economic growth and social development, and improve governance to enhance policy performance toward achieving development goals. However, the Cameroon TVET country profile (2022) does not mention climate change or environmental issues.

An examination of individual businesses using data from the Cameroon Business Climate Survey (2016) reveals that nearly 56% of companies have adopted a ‘green’ policy. This policy encompasses various practices, such as reducing their carbon footprint, managing waste through recycling, enhancing office energy efficiency, using environmentally friendly materials and equipment, and implementing green training programs for their employees. 

Likewise, The Ministry of Forest and Rural Development and the Centre for International Development and Training of the University of Wolverhampton launched an initiative to introduce forest governance and climate change into the training programmes of Cameroon’s higher learning institutions. The motivation behind this initiative stems from the inadequacy in tackling diverse environmental issues, notably climate change. The aim of this initiative is to transform forest training programs into a catalyst for promoting effective forest governance, sustainable forest management, and combating climate change.

In 2020, the Department of National Meteorology coordinated a multi-stakeholder training that included ministries, media representatives, and farmers—who are the primary consumers of agrometeorological information—to enhance the processes for gathering and disseminating such vital data.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock organizes an agropastoral and fishing training programme in 88 training centres. In 2020, 40 youth were recruited and participated in the programme, which lasted 2 years. In previous years, more than 3,500 young people have been trained in agropastoral and fishing trades. According to the Investing In Youth Vocational Training (2021) report produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization, the training programme is a response to an increased demand for agricultural food, fuel and materials, which can only be addressed by improving rural infrastructure and by supporting adaptation to natural resource management and climate resilience. 

In 2018, The African Association for Green Cities launched the Environmental Education Project, with the primary goal of emphasizing the significance of environmental education in fighting climate change through awareness-raising and adaptation efforts. This initiative is geared toward enhancing the overall well-being of the population by alleviating stress on ecosystems and establishing sustainable income sources. It supervises activities related to diversifying agriculture and livestock and offers training for productivity enhancements and the marketing of sustainable products. The Association achieves these objectives by establishing schools and community botanical gardens, formulating environmental education concepts, and implementing documentation strategies.

In 2021, the International Student Environmental Coalition–Cameroon organized a training workshop targeted to 50 climate justice activists to equip them with leadership skills, teach them strategies to enhance their work, show them advocacy best practices for the context in Cameroon, and support climate action in the country. As part of the workshop, participants developed Earth Power Movement campaigns that advocated for ending fossil fuel infrastructural development and for a just transition to renewable energy.


I) Climate change and public awareness

The Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015) presents four fundamental strategic objectives. These objectives are expected to serve as guidance for various dimensions of public or private adaptation projects. One of the four fundamental objectives is, “Informing, educating, and mobilizing the Cameroonian population to adapt to climate change” (p. 60).

To achieve this objective, the Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan outlines some recommendations. The Plan notes that grassroots communities, farmers, and educational communities will be prioritized for planned communication efforts. Collaborating with community leaders or vital regional non-governmental organizations is recommended to facilitate community mobilization. The planned communication efforts are expected to be conducted using a multimedia approach, utilizing tools such as booklets, guides, brochures, role-playing games, and posters. Additionally, traditional venues such as periodic markets, religious holidays, and weddings will be integrated into communication efforts, with the involvement of storytellers, poets, and preachers. Another recommended initiative is compiling ongoing adaptation efforts nationwide and sharing them with the public as good examples.

The Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015) includes project sheets that sectoral ministries and their technical and financial partners can refer to for planning activities. These project sheets serve as guidelines. One of the projects presented in these sheets is “Raising awareness of the population, professionals, administrations, and decision-makers about the effects of climate change and the measures to be taken.” Among the project’s specific objectives are disseminating good examples of adaptation efforts and raising awareness among decision-makers about climate change. Furthermore, the climate change communication strategy will be updated to outline the actions to raise public awareness of climate change. The project sheet indicates that measures will include preparing communication and outreach materials on climate change, organizing meetings and training sessions with decision-makers, and planning mass media campaigns. Another project listed in the project sheets is “Adaptation of the national gender policy and reduction of their vulnerability to climate change.” Among the specific objectives of this project are raising the awareness of women and other vulnerable groups, protecting them from the impacts of climate change, and strengthening their resilience to these effects. 

In 2018, the Ministry of Environment, Protection of Nature and Sustainable Development (MINEPDED) announced the development of a National Communication Strategy for Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) principles in Cameroon. The draft report was finalized during a workshop held in September 2018, with the participation of media practitioners, communication experts, MINEPDED staff, and partners involved in ABS implementation in Cameroon. The report was to be shared with the public after the necessary corrections were made. However, this communication strategy was not accessible at the time of this report.

One of the focal points in the National Development Strategy 2020–2030, which outlines the Government’s overarching goals, is the fight against climate change. The strategy aims to integrate climate change mitigation into sectoral strategies and support corporate social responsibility initiatives. Additionally, within the Strategy, climate change is considered an opportunity to transition to a green economy, combat poverty, and strengthen social cohesion. 

The National Voluntary Examination (2022) highlights awareness-raising and advocacy efforts at different levels for the consideration of Sustainable Development Goals. In 2020, with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Ministry of the Economy, Planning and Regional Development (MINEPAT) organized an advocacy and awareness-raising session for members of parliament on sustainable development issues. At the local level, tools were provided to mayors for the integration of Sustainable Development Goals into local development policies and plans, and a practical guide for integrating the Sustainable Development Goals into Cameroonian local governments was prepared.

In 2017 and in collaboration with the World Bank, a guide was prepared to integrate climate change adaptation and disaster risk management into Cameroon’s development planning. Within this framework, a strategic-level analysis of climate and disaster risks was conducted, and information was provided at the project level. The guide aligns with existing processes and planning tools within the MINEPAT, and it provides guidance for integrating these aspects into development programs and projects for all financial and technical partners working strategically and practically in the field of sustainable development.

In Cameroon, there are efforts by civil society organizations to strengthen public awareness regarding climate change. The Centre pour l’Environnement et le Développement Cameroun (CEDCAM), established in 1995 and joining Friends of the Earth International in 1999, continues its work to combat poverty while preserving nature. They advocate for the interconnectedness of environmental and social problems. CEDCAM’s activities include local sustainability projects and capacity building with communities and Indigenous groups. As a Friends of the Earth International member, the organization participates in the School of Sustainability, an annual event hosted by a different group in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia-Pacific, Africa, and Europe. Member groups and allies from the region are invited to this school. The School of Sustainability aims to share and deepen a collective understanding of the root causes of social and environmental injustices. The school’s themes and objectives are determined based on the needs of the groups and the region.

Another effort from the civil society is the one created by the African Association for Green Cities (AVIVE), which has launched the ‘Environmental Education’ project in Cameroon to enhance the population’s understanding of climate change. The project educates people on the causes and severe impacts of climate change and highlights activities that contribute to or mitigate its effects. The initiative seeks to transform those involved in greenhouse gas–emitting activities into champions against climate change by promoting environmentally friendly alternatives that also boost socio-economic conditions. Notably, the project promotes the establishment of school and community botanical gardens, the creation of environmental and climate change education concepts, and the documentation of strategies. Additionally, AVIVE advocates for community-driven efforts like reforestation and soil fertility restoration.

II) Climate change and public access to information

According to the Country Climate and Development Report (2022) published by the World Bank Group, data sources in Cameroon are fragmented. Additionally, the report mentions that the processes for managing data collection and sharing are weak, and access to information is challenging because of non-functional websites, outdated information, or restrictions. 

In Cameroon, the government agency responsible for providing statistical data on structural statistics such as agriculture, finance, and mining is the National Institute of Statistics. The institution shares guideline manuals to effectively disseminate the data and statistics it produces. These manuals ensure that all users have timely, easy, and equitable access to the data, following the United Nations recommendations adopted by the African Statistics Charter and the guidelines outlined in the national communication policy. The National Observatory on Climate Change makes its assessments of the monthly impacts of extreme climate events available to the public, as well as reports on the economic impact of climate change on the agriculture sector. 

The first of the four strategic objectives outlined in the Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015) is “Improving knowledge of climate change in Cameroon.” Under this strategic objective, support is provided for research on impacts and adaptation. The research findings will facilitate the preparation of climate scenarios through various collaborations. Additionally, strengthening climate monitoring efforts is recommended through observation, information, and warning systems. To ensure that the generated information is easily disseminated, it will be presented in forms that everyone can understand, such as bulletins. Ultimately, the aim is for scientific knowledge to be used to influence decision-making processes.

The project sheet presented in the Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015) proposes the creation of an observation, information management, and warning system for climate risks in Cameroon. This involves establishing functional meteorological and hydrological stations. The aim is to create an accessible and centralized database to share information obtained from these stations with the public

One of the goals presented within the scope of the National Development Strategy 2020–2030 for combating climate change is to “build the capacity of institutions responsible for climate watch” and “operationalize the system of monitoring, prevention, and response to the effects of climate change” (p. 63).

III) Climate change and public participation

The Cameroon National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015), which details Cameroon’s strategy for adapting to climate change, was developed with the input of field experts during its preparation phase, along with the contributions from workshops that engaged over 625 participants. The plan set forth four main objectives that all the stakeholders agreed upon. The Plan strongly emphasizes enhancing participation mechanisms for local communities, Indigenous populations, rural women, and youth.

According to the Country Climate and Development Report (2022) by the World Bank Group, consultation workshops were organized, and stakeholder engagement took place during the preparation of policy documents. However, stakeholders did not have as much influence as needed in the decision-making and implementation processes. Additionally, the report states that monitoring institutions cannot review climate change actions and performance.

In 2023, the community-based organization Youth Care Network, in partnership with the United Nations Sustainable Development, started the project Reforestation, Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Change in the City of Garoua-Northern Region Cameroon that promotes resilience and community participation in reforestation to fight climate change. Among its multiple objectives, the Project seeks to 1) raise awareness on the consequences of deforestation; and 2) organize meetings with other community-based organizations, traditional local authorities, and local communities to propose a transition to non-fossil energy sources. Once the project is completed in 2025, the partnership will continue to monitor the outcomes of the project, such as the changes in behaviour and attitude in the local communities, and the motivation of local actors to actively participate in decision-making activities.


I) Country monitoring

In Cameroon, the National Observatory on Climate Change (NOCC) is responsible for monitoring and evaluating the socio-economic and environmental impact of climate change in the country. It provides meteorological and climatological data, prepares annual climate reports for Cameroon, and issues ten-day climate advisory bulletins. Additionally, it recommends preventive measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the government and proposes measures to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. Finally, the NOCC tracks and reports on the carbon footprint of manufacturing practices and human activities.

As part of its long-term development vision, Cameroon plans to lead an ambitious National Statistical System that will be capable of producing complete, reliable, and coherent statistical data. The data developed will be used to inform the design of development policies and programs, measure progress, and report development results to Cameroonian society. The National Institute for Statistics highlighted that to achieve this objective, enhancements are needed for the constant improvement in the coverage, periodicity, and degree of updating of data; public access to this data; data integrity; and data quality. 

The country seeks to address gender issues in the region by generating reports and indicators that address the gender dimension. The National Institute of Statistics published a report on the trends in certain key health indicators linked to gender. The report highlights that tracking indicators such as the “proportion by gender of youth (15 to 24 age old) that do not study nor work” or “literacy rate among the population between 15–49 years old” make it possible to integrate the gender dimension in the planning, development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies, programs, and projects.

The Ministry of the Economy, Planning and Regional Development published the Second SDG Voluntary National Review (2022). The Review mentions that one of the challenges that Cameroon faces in achieving the SDGs is the lack of support for monitoring the implementation of the SDGs. As a response to this challenge, the Review suggested mobilizing funds for a system to collect and produce statistical data relating to the monitoring–evaluation of the SDGs. The Review also stipulates that monitoring activities are carried out by the Ministry of the Economy, Planning at the national level. Monitoring of the SDGs at the regional and local levels is carried out in coordination with regional and departmental services that are required to report annually on the evolution of the SDG monitoring indicators. 

Similarly, the National Institute of Statistics developed a baseline for the SDG indicators in Cameroon (2021). This document allowed the country to set targets and indicators that responded to the needs and contexts of Cameroon. Regarding SDG 4 ‘Quality Education,’ the indicators suggest that Cameroon needs to work on a solid citizenry base capable of sustaining economic growth. In contrast, the document mentions that activities are being undertaken by Cameroon to address SDG 13 ‘Climate Action,’ such as developing and implementing a National Adaptation Plan and a National Observatory on Climate Change. At the time of this review, neither the Adaptation Plan nor Observatory have been developed. 

According to the Second SDG Voluntary National Review (2022), the National Statistics Development Strategy (2020) is a reference framework for government action to promote statistical issues and is an asset for the implementation of an integrated system for monitoring and evaluating the SDGs. The Strategy defines and specifies tools for monitoring and evaluating government efforts in all priority sectors.

The evaluation of the National Statistics Development Strategy (2020) will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the planning and programming of statistical activities in the country. In 2023, Cameroon developed the 2024–2026 Statistical Programme, highlighting that monitoring budgeting expenses are one lever to increase funding for national statistical projects. The programme focuses on the sectors of education, housing, health, and agriculture. Some of the key statistical activities to be carried out over the period 2024–2026 are 1) training to include statistical activities in tracking the public budget, and 2) raising awareness among administrations of the need to allocate resources to statistical production to create performance indicators.

II) MECCE Project Monitoring

The Monitoring and Evaluating Climate Communication and Education (MECCE) Project examined the Curriculum for French-speaking primary education for Grade 1 (2018) for references to ‘climate change,’ ‘environment,’ ‘sustainability,’ and ‘biodiversity.’ ‘Climate change’ is not mentioned in the Curriculum for French-speaking primary education for Grade 1 (2018). Terminology related to ‘environment’ and ‘biodiversity’ are not mentioned in the document. ‘Sustainability’ is mentioned 11 times in the Curriculum.

The Curriculum for French-speaking primary education for Grade 2 (2018) was also examined by the MECCE project for references to ‘climate change,’ ‘environment,’ ‘sustainability,’ and ‘biodiversity.’ ‘Climate change’ was mentioned 12 times in the Curriculum for French-speaking primary education for Grade 2 (2018). ‘Environment’ and ‘biodiversity’ are not mentioned in the document. ‘Sustainability’ is mentioned 9 times in the Curriculum.

The Curriculum for French-speaking primary education for Grade 3 (2018) was also examined by the MECCE project for references to ‘climate change,’ ‘environment,’ ‘sustainability,’ and ‘biodiversity.’ ‘Climate change’ was mentioned 7 times in the Curriculum for French-speaking primary education for Grade 3 (2018). Terminology related to the ‘environment’ is mentioned 2 times. ‘Biodiversity’ is not mentioned in the document. ‘Sustainability’ is mentioned 22 times in the Curriculum.

This section will be updated as the MECCE project develops.

This profile was reviewed by: 

Dr. Adedoyin Adeleke, Executive Director, The Green Growth Africa 

Dr. Kenneth Toah Nsah, Researcher-scholar

Tchiegdjo Tamo Ulrich Stephane, Executive Director, Environmental Education for a Better Earth Cameroon