CCE Country Profile

cape verde, flag, country-26913.jpg

Cabo Verde

Table of Contents

We encourage countries to give input on the profiles to assist us in keeping them accurate and up to date. Please contact the GEM Report (education.profiles(at) or the MECCE Project ( to give input. The country profiles are also available on the GEM Report’s Profiles Enhancing Education Reviews (PEER) website at

This profile has been reviewed by country experts.


I) Climate change context

Cabo Verde is an archipelago located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. Encompassing a total land area of 4.033 km2 and 734.000 km2 of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), it is made up of ten islands, nine of which are inhabited, as well a number of islets. According to the World Bank, in 2022 Cabo Verde was home to 593,149 people.

The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) indicates that Cabo Verde is particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as desertification, droughts and occasional but extreme and destructive heavy rains and sea level rise. The country thus faces multiple environmental and climate-related challenges such as water resource scarcity, food and energy security. Due to each island’s unique characteristics, impacts vary across the country. On flat islands like Sal, Boa Vista and Maio, there is an increase in average temperatures and a rise in the average sea level, and in mountainous islands, there is coastal erosion. According to the World Bank, every year between 1980 and 2020, different natural hazards in Cabo Verde were experienced as follows: droughts (33.3%), storms (25%), volcanic activity (16.67%), epidemics (16.67%) and floods (8.33%) 

Cabo Verde is a low-emitting country, emitting around 1.1 tCO2 (tons of carbon dioxide) per person, as indicated by the Global Carbon Atlas in 2021. The energy sector contributed the most to the country’s total emissions between 1995 and 2010. The subsector energy industries accounted for 55% of the total CO2 emissions of the whole energy sector, followed by the transportation subsector, with 41% of total CO2 emissions. The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector was also a considerable source of emissions, especially forestry. 

Cabo Verde has been a Non-Annex I party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) since 1995. The country has signed and ratified all climate change agreements, including the Kyoto Protocol in 2006, the Paris Agreement in 2016 and the Doha Amendment in 2022. 

II) Relevant government agencies

Climate change

The Ministry of Agriculture and Environment is responsible for coordinating, elaborating, executing and evaluating national policies for sectors such as agriculture, livestock, agribusiness, food security, environment, water and sanitation. The ministry is also committed to promoting and developing climate-change-related policies with the relevant sectors. 

The Inter-ministerial Committee on Climate Change was created by Resolution 16/2009, which is responsible for articulating government actions concerning the commitments the country acquires under the UNFCCC. The committee was formed by various national entities that were part of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment and the Ministry of Economy in 2009, as well as the National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics

The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) states that the Government of Cabo Verde started to implement the National Framework for Climate Services (NCFS) in 2020, and that this will continue at least until 2025. The NCFS is an institutional mechanism to coordinate, facilitate and strengthen collaboration among national institutions to improve the co-production, adaptation, delivery and use of climate-related research and services. The aim is to improve food and nutrition security, water management, health and disaster risk reduction, as well as the production of renewable energies. The NFCS also aims to deliver climate-related services, strengthen overall climate-related capacity, improve general understanding of climate-related risks and vulnerabilities, and contribute to better decision-making at different levels of government and in all sectors. 

According to the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), Cabo Verde’s approach to climate-related governance involves four different levels: strategic, operational, decentralized and civic. The strategic level is coordinated by the National Climate Council, through the ministries with finance and environment portfolios, as well as the national administrative bodies working with climate change. The council develops climate policy and executes national climate strategies, aligning the Paris Agreement with the national development objectives. The council also sets the eligibility criteria for national and local projects to access climate funding and determines the indicators for monitoring progress. The council coordinates the Low Term Emissions Development Strategy (LT-LEDS 2050) and articulates climate governance at all levels, including initiatives to enhance civic empowerment in relation to climate change. The operational level is steered by the Climate Department, which is in the process of being established as part of the National Directorate for the Environment, which falls under the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment; and the Climate Service at the National Planning Directorate, which is housed within the Ministry of Finance and Business Promotion. The National Directorate for the Environment is the national authority linked to the UNFCCC and has led the Inter-ministerial Committee on Climate Change since 2008. Once it is operational, the Climate Department will cooperate with different national and international stakeholders on climate mitigation and adaptation. In parallel, the National Planning Directorate will coordinate with the National Directorate for the Environment around the implementation of the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) and the National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030).

At the decentralized level, municipalities are encouraged to play an important role in climate action, including planning, executing actions, and monitoring the implementation of climate policies. In particular, the National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030) highlights the involvement of all 22 municipalities to support the implementation of national climate planning and policies as well as increasing local resilience. They work in parallel with national institutions such as the Climate Department. The National Association of Cabo Verdean Municipalities (ANMCV) represents and supports local governments working in different sectors, including the environment sector, which recognizes climate change as a major global problem. 

Cabo Verde tries to involve civil society in climate action. The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) mentions that the National Climate Council will coordinate a platform to empower citizens on climate action, as well as for monitoring purposes. The proposed National Climate Forum will provide the platform for a wide range of stakeholders to participate in generating information and recommendations that the government can address. These include citizens, associations, scientific institutions, academic bodies, training institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). 

The National Planning Directorate works within the Ministry of Finance and Business Promotion and coordinates the preparation, implementation and monitoring of the national Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development. In line with the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) the directorate also leads the Inter-ministerial Articulation Committee for Climate Funds established in 2019, which is responsible for international climate finance. 

Other sectors also cooperate on climate change affairs: the Ministry of Family, Social Inclusion and Development is expected to cooperate with the Climate Department and other institutions focused on climate, with a particular focus on empowering women. According to the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), climate issues and elements from the Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) will be integrated into the country’s updated gender equality plans and strategies. 

Education and communication

The Ministry of Education is responsible for national policies that support the educational, scientific and technological sectors, addressing the country’s challenges to guarantee a quality education and teaching system. The ministry implements and evaluates the education system at all levels, including higher education (through the Higher Education, Science and Technology Office (GESCT)). 

The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) notes that the Ministry of Education is leading various initiatives to empower communities by raising awareness of climate mitigation and adaptation, including environmental preservation and conservation. The Ministry of Agriculture and Environment also plays an important role in education and communication in relation to the environment and climate change. The ministry dedicates a section to environmental education on its website, where projects implemented by the ministry are posted. At the time of writing, there was reference to a project on biodiversity and tourism (BIOTUR). 

According to the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development (2022-2026, PEDS II), the Government of Cabo Verde is implementing the Campus de Mar, which is an instrument of education, research and blue ecology, whose objective is to make Cabo Verde more efficient in terms of marine conservation and protection. The Campus de Mar is made up of three sectors: higher education, research and technical-professional training; three entities have been set up to make it operational: the Technical University of the Atlantic (UTA), the Institute of the Sea (IMAR) and the School of the Sea (EMAR). 

The Third National Communication (2017) notes that the Environmental Education Network (REA) aims to participate in environmental education in secondary schools. It works in parallel with the Ministry of Education, developing activities and conferences for schools on relevant environment and climate change topics. Several NGOs are also focused on environmental and climate change issues, some of which work in environmental education, such as the Cabo Verde Association for Environment Education (ACACEA) and the Adaptares Project.

At the time of writing, Cabo Verde did not have a National Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) Focal Point. This is an initiative to enhance people’s participation and empowerment around climate change, in particular to involve young people to promote literacy, skills and engagement in climate-related issues. The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) states that the country will designate a Focal Point and work towards implementing the ACE elements. 

III) Relevant laws, policies, and plans

Climate change

In Cabo Verde, the Political Constitution (last revision in 2010) recognizes that the state is responsible for protecting the environment and natural resources. In addition, a healthy and ecologically balanced environment is considered as everyone’s right and duty to protect. The constitution states that relevant public authorities will implement suitable policies as well as promote environmental education and environmental values to guarantee the right to a healthy environment.

In the last few years, Cabo Verde has made efforts to prevent and reduce natural disasters, as well as to implement climate mitigation and adaptation actions. Launched in 2017, the National Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction aims to build a resilient society in the country by 2030. The strategy focuses on reducing disaster risks, having strong institutions, and empowering communities to respond effectively. The strategy includes mitigating actions and the intention to reduce the impact of disasters and climate change on the sustainable development of the country. 

The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014-2030 addresses issues related to the conservation and preservation of biodiversity in the country. The strategy is based on three principles: i) conservation and integration of biodiversity values; ii) involvement and participation of society on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and iii) equal sharing of benefits around the country for the development and welfare of the whole population. The strategy recognizes that poor knowledge and awareness of environmental issues, and climate change itself, are direct causes of biodiversity loss. A number of different initiatives aim to combat this. 

The Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development (2022-2026, PEDS II) aims to prepare the Government of Cabo Verde to achieve the goals set out in Ambition 2030. According to the National Adaptation Plan 2022-2030, the Ambition 2030 document determines the country’s sustainable development path. Regarding climate change, the country aims to minimize climate change’s impacts through planned and linked actions at all levels to secure safety on the island, with strong capacities to promote sustainability, innovation and resilience. 

Ambition 2030 includes the Third Pillar –Environment, which focuses on building a resilient country and promoting improved knowledge of climate change through disseminating information, enhancing education, raising awareness and training. It also aims to establish a new climate governance framework for the country, which includes climate planning, management, and policy implementation. 

Cabo Verde submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution in 2021, which outline the expanded scope and ambition of its mitigation goals, and its increased focus on adaptation, climate justice and gender equality, transparency and good governance. The country has committed to an emissions reduction target of 18% below business-as-usual by 2030, or 24% with international support. The country aims to achieve a net-zero economy by 2050.

The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) acknowledges that vulnerable groups are not sufficiently considered in the face of climate change, as well as the need to make connections between gender, climate policy and planning. It notes that vulnerability in relation to climate change is particularly present near cities; the shallow islands; agricultural and forest areas; and the coastline, where population and assets are mainly concentrated. Vulnerable groups and areas are most exposed to the most extreme impact of natural disasters and climate change-related events. The most recently submitted contribution is thus intended to increase the scope, ambition and coherence between adaptation and mitigation, as well as ‘horizontal issues’ such as gender equality and transparency in governance. To this end, the country will: i) operationalize the Action Plan for Gender and Energy by 2030, support the emergence of local businesses, and promote economic opportunities for women, particularly in the field of renewable energies, which represent at least 20% of the workforce in 2030; ii) conduct a gender analysis of the participation of women and men in the blue economy, promoting entrepreneurship and job-creation for the youth, encouraging innovation by 2022, and identifying priority gender-specific actions; and iii) define roles and responsibilities of and within different institutions with regard to gender and climate actions, and appoint a National Gender and Climate Change Focal Point that is linked to the Climate Governance Framework. 

In 2021, the Government of Cabo Verde presented its National Adaptation Plan 2022-2030. This is fully aligned with the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), covering national goals set out in the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development (2022-2026) and Cabo Verde: Ambition 2030. The plan aims to reduce Cabo Verde’s environmental and economic vulnerability through three objectives: i) creating an environment that facilitates the integration of adaptation into planning and budgeting; ii) improving the capacity to manage and share information, have more access to technology, and the ability to finance adaptation activities; iii) implementing adaptation actions for greater resilience among the most vulnerable groups. To meet these objectives, the plan has three supporting pillars: i) institutional framework; ii) knowledge, technology and financing; and iii) developing the resilience of the most vulnerable. 

In February 2023, a steering committee launched the Climate Action Programme. The programme is considered key to improving climate governance and will facilitate the implementation of Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) and the National Adaptation Plan 2022-2030. At the launch, the Minister of Agriculture and Environment noted that effective implementation will lead to Cabo Verdeans having greater climate literacy. Municipalities will also benefit from concrete climate actions as well as pilot programmes, mainly on adaptation to natural disasters and capacity building. 

Education and communication

In 2014, the Government of Cabo Verde presented the National Plan for Environmental Education (2013-2022, PNEA). The plan recognizes environmental education as a challenge, as strengthening environmental conservation and preservation requires cultural and behavioural change. The plan aims to guide the implementation of national policies in environmental education to have ecologically aware citizens who can work towards the sustainable management of natural resources.

The Strategic Education Plan (2017-2021) states that education is important for addressing a range of social issues as well as increasing the participation of all citizens in sustainable development. The plan notes that the transformation of the education system is a long-term endeavour and includes the need to align with international commitments such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). According to the plan, the Ministry of Education works with different sectors and actors to develop effective approaches to sustainable development, including the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment for agricultural sciences and environmental education. 

The National Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction has a strong focus on education and communication to build overall resilience in the face of climate change and natural disasters. The strategy promotes capacity building, and awareness and public education programmes. It also supports research and knowledge management for disaster risk reduction of and climate change mitigation and adaptation. 

The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) mentions the commitment of the Government of Cabo Verde to the Paris Agreement. In line with this, it aims to ensure Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE). The document specifies that there need to be improvements in education, training, public awareness, public participation, and public access to information and international cooperation in relation to climate change. 

Under the National Adaptation Plan 2022-2030, a number of actions will be implemented for education and communication in climate change. Focusing on the period 2021-2026, these include climate education, capacity building and communication plans. The idea is to reach and involve as much of the population as possible, and raise overall awareness in the country. There will also be data collection and analysis, which will help the government managing climate change information, as a cross-cutting theme affecting a number of ministries and different levels of government. There will thus be appropriate knowledge and information sharing with municipalities and other entities at national and regional levels. The importune of ancestral knowledge is mentioned frequently, and would be relevant in adaptation actions, such as the ‘transmission of local and ancestral knowledge about observations of climatic phenomena, adaptation mechanisms to extreme climatic events.’ (p. 107)

IV) Terminology used for climate communication and education

Various terms related to climate change appear in policy documents. The Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development (2022-2026) includes terms such as ‘climate action’ ‘resilience’, and terms related to sustainability, such as ‘geo-biodiversity’. The plan ‘[Promotes] decentralization, regional development and convergence with territorial cohesion, urban quality and sustainability, environmental sustainability, climate action and resilience and value biodiversity and geodiversity’ (n.p).

The National Plan for Environmental Education (2013-2022) considers ‘environmental education’ as an educational process that has gained great relevance in the last decades, as content to be enriched, added to traditional subjects, gaining subject status in various educational systems. Moreover, the Plan defines ‘environmental education’ as:

The system of knowledge, information, skills, and capabilities that, as an educational action, aims to shape attitudes, interests, feelings, values, and habits aimed at the appropriate use of nature and its protection, preservation, recovery, restoration, recomposition and increase, as a system with its balance and healthy way of life (p. 308).

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Country Programme 2022-2026 for Cabo Verde recognizes climate change as an emergency, and refers to actions and commitments that can benefit future generations: ‘The Government of Cabo Verde is aware of the global and national state of climate emergency and advocates a responsible and respectful attitude towards current and future generations…’ (p.43).

‘Climate change’ and related terms appear in the education curriculum. For instance, the 9th-grade geography curriculum (2021) includes content on the environmental impacts of climate change arising from human activities. Terms include ‘greenhouse gases’, ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’.

Terms related to climate change communication are also found in national policies. In particular, across its action lines, the National Adaptation Plan 2022-2030 underlines terms such as ‘communication awareness campaigns’, ‘climate communication plan’, ‘climate information’ as and ‘climate resilience’. The plan states that its communication plan was framed to:

(…) Find accelerating instruments for the involvement of society as a whole, identifying innovative ways for everyone’s participation, through the integration of the various target audiences in groups and communities, and using simple, effective and credible broadcasting vehicles for the message (page 97).

V) Budget for climate communication and education

Cabo Verde is categorized as a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) based on the SDGs regional grouping. According to the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) this gives the country the status of requiring ‘special attention’ for international financial and technological support. In September 2023 at the Financing of Climate Resilience in SIDS event, the Minister of Agriculture and Environment stressed that Cabo Verde needs more financing. 

In 2023, Cape Verde and Portugal (Cabo Verde is a former colony of Portugal) signed a bilateral agreement in which Portugal committed to convert US$13 million of Cape Verde’s debt into support for the country’s climate transition by 2025. The funds will be used to contribute to Cabo Verde’s Climate and Environmental Fund. It will be linked to investments and earmarked for developing climate resilience. 

According to the World Bank, the Government of Cabo Verde spent 7.6% of its total gross domestic product (GDP) in 2021 on education, equating to 15.1% of total government expenditure. However, budget allocation to climate change education is not specified. 

Within the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment, the Environment Fund finances different projects, both public and private initiatives, which are expected to contribute to improvements in environmental quality and the population’s living conditions. The fund has been operational since 1997. Key sectors that are beneficiaries of the fund are the government, municipalities, civil society organizations (CSOs) and NGOs. Overall financing is for a diverse array of projects covering environmental information, statistics, environmental awareness, environmental education, nature conservation, environmental preservation and action planning. 

In 2019, the Government of Cabo Verde launched Resolution 73/2019 to create the Inter-ministerial Articulation Committee for Climate Funds, which supports those authorities responsible for climate funds in the country. The committee is cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary and is driven by representatives of the finance and environment sectors. The committee is formed by different national entities, including: the National Planning Directorate, which leads the committee and is responsible for coordinating international climate commitments and policies; the National Directorate of Environment; and educational bodies such as the Higher Education, Science and Technology Office

Regarding research, policies such as the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development (2022-2026) foster diverse initiatives to increase financing flows on research projects. In particular, the plan aims to increase public investments in scientific research to 1.5% of GDP.

According to the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), the National Planning Directorate will adopt a climate finance strategy and define a work plan by 2022, which facilitates the direction of financing flows. Further initiatives are aimed for completion by 2024. These include: integrating climate change into national budget cycles; facilitating direct access to climate finance by accrediting national entities; holding annual conferences with international stakeholders to procure climate finance support; enhancing climate diplomacy; securing international climate finance; and accessing strategic climate information. 

International bodies such as the Green Climate Fund allocate financial flows to various projects related to climate change-related affairs. At the time of writing, the fund had committed around US$1 million and two projects were approved: the Country Programming Support and Sustainable Tourism Planning for Cabo Verde, and Enhance capacities of Cabo Verde in addressing the effects of climate change in key sectors of the Blue Economy.

Other initiatives on environmental protection and conservation are under way. For instance, the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) mentions that the country will create a Blue Fund by 2023. The aim is to get domestic and international financing of the blue economy and to collaborate on protecting marine resource and maritime spaces, and prioritize blue habitat conservation. 

The National Adaptation Plan estimates the cost of implementation of a climate education plan, a climate research programme, a capacity building plan and climate communication plan between 2022 and 2028 to be around US$3.5 million. This would cover the following: the evaluation of the school curricula to identify entry points for climate adaptation topics; the identification of educational needs concerning climate change impacts, vulnerabilities and actions and the implementation of a research programme that addresses them (about US$ 260,000); the identification of research needs for climate change issues nationwide (about US$ 500,000); capacity-building programmes for teachers and other stakeholders (US$ 1,280,000); and the implementation of the communication programme on climate change resilience (about US$ 1,400,000).


I) Climate change in pre-primary, primary, and secondary education

The Curriculum for Formal Basic Education 1-8 Grade aims to instil students with a basic knowledge of diverse subject areas and to build solid personal and social values. In the first cycle of basic education for grades 1-4, students use a science manual to learn about water, health, energy, the environment and climate change. The curriculum also encourages students to understand the importance of environmental preservation and sustainability. These approaches are developed in more depth in grades 5-8 grade through subjects such as earth and life science, geography and history. As learning outcomes, students are expected to identify environmental issues, the existence of natural resources, as well as natural geography and climate features and alterations. Earth and Life Science 5-8 Grade addresses sustainable development approaches throughout the whole curriculum. In particular, the methodology guidelines from the 6th Grade include science and sustainable development. Students are also encouraged to learn about energy resources and solid waste management to identify attitudes that benefit sustainable development overall. 

The Ministry of Education prepares pedagogical manuals for students from different grades. For instance, the Integrated Science Manual for 2nd-Grade students expects students to understand environmental elements and their importance, as well as social and emotional learning dimensions. It is hoped that students can show respect and conservation awareness in relation to natural resources. There are also action and behavioural components, where, for example, students are encouraged to understand the transportation sector, its impact on the environment, and how they can collaborate in reducing environmental impact while using public transportation. 

Geography 11-12 Grade includes climate change topics such as the earth’s atmosphere. In general, students learn about all the elements of the climate, as well as the greenhouse effect, air pollution, deforestation and climate change. They also learn about climate change as a disruptive factor in climatic processes, together with other related topics such as natural resources, sustainable development and health. These topics are taught through a variety of ways, such as classroom debates, readings, commenting on the news, exploring maps and looking at statistics. 

The Association Vito Project collaborates on the protection and conservation of natural resources on the islands of Fogo and Brava, the Rombos islets, and throughout Cabo Verde. The project promotes environmental education, including initiatives from pre-school to secondary school, working with the Ministry of Education and other stakeholders, such as the University of Cabo Verde. The association develops activities that are planned annually, including lectures in educational communities, awareness-raising campaigns, and the creation of botanical gardens. Within the association, the objective is to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the environment and human impacts on the environment, a critical awareness, and to motivating and encouraging citizens to participate more in combating socio-environmental issues. 

The Association for the Defence of the Environment and Development was formed in 1991 and works with public and private institutions to reduce human impact on the environment. It also works with communities to contribute to the country’s development and reduce social inequalities. The association works on environmental education and awareness campaigns. It has worked with the national government to improve governance in areas such as coastal management plans, public debt management for natural and climate-related issues, and climate resilience.

The knowledge, technology, and financing pillar of the National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030) is aimed at implementing a climate education plan over the period 2022-2028, mainly to address the low levels knowledge about local vulnerabilities and adaptation solutions. The plan implements evaluating actions on the school curricula to identify where adaptation-related topics should be introduced, as well as impacts, vulnerabilities, actions and changes as they relate to adaptation. The revision of the curricula aims to incorporate adaptation into topics related to the carbon and water cycle, climate advocacy, climate resilience and empowerment. It is intended that climate change issues be incorporated into the primary and secondary school curricula, so that it is addressed at all levels. The ultimate aim is to have cohorts of students who are aware of climate risks and are willing to contribute to change, as well as greater resilience within families and schools. 

According to the Third National Communication (2017), the environmental education programmes implemented in Cabo Verde are aligned with the objectives of UNFCCC. It also notes that the vision in the country for environmental education is to have a population that is informed and committed to the environment and sustainable development, achieved through a multisector education system.

The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) indicates that the Government of Cabo Verde is aiming for more public participation and empowerment, with a strong focus on young people, to improve literacy, skills, and engagement in relation to the climate. By 2025, schools and textbooks for all levels should include modern climate education, and relevant ancient and traditional coping practices. Teacher training should be adapted so that teachers are well prepared to implement this. The document mentions other initiatives such as the identification and setting up a network of youth associations (on islands and in municipalities or cities) as hubs for youth participation in climate action. Education can also be further developed in practical areas, such as the repair and maintenance of appliances and bicycles, food processing and preservation, supply of local products to hotels, cultural services, the recycling industry, digital tools that contribute to energy and resources savings, and language development. 

II) Climate change in teacher training and teacher resources

The Ministry of Education’s e-ME Platform New Learning Horizons for pedagogical purposes offers teacher access in four areas: i) teaching material space, ii) a virtual community, iii) the professional update action space, and iv) the continuous training workshop space for teachers. Through the platform, teachers can obtain diverse materials about teaching-learning processes, learn about administration and management, exchange information, update materials, share events, and participate in workshops, seminars and courses. The platform offers the course on Climate Change and Efficient Use of Water, but this is only available to the users and not the public. 

Together with the implementation of the climate education plan under the National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030), the plan also supports teachers from different levels of education by implementing a capacity-building programme that is focused on climate change impacts and adaptation actions. The programme is expected to be implemented over the period 2022-2028. Teachers can apply their knowledge of adaptation in their daily professional activities. The plan aims to train over 1,500 people, including teachers. 

The National Plan for Environmental Education (2013-2022) has a strong emphasis on the importance of training educational actors at both the administrative and pedagogical levels. Actions include systematizing and evaluating programmes and/or training projects on environmental and sanitation themes, as well as developing educational guidelines for the programme. Activities include seminars, workshops, and training and awareness campaigns for the educational community.

The University Institute of Education includes degree programmes with specific pedagogical objectives for different areas such as natural sciences, basic education in earth and life sciences, and education sciences.

According to the Third National Communication, the University of Cabo Verde has developed initiatives to integrate teachers into national and international research teams and research centres to make interventions that benefit both Cabo Verde’s sustainable development and the university’s reputation and standing. 

The Strategic Educational Plan (2017-2021) set a number of priorities for national education polices in Cabo Verde, including teacher training initiatives to improve the quality and relevance of the provision of education in the country. The aim is also to reinforce the training of teachers and managers at all levels and types of education, strengthen pedagogical support and improve the content of educational programmes and methodologies. 

III) Climate change in higher education

The Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development (2022-2026, PEDS II) fosters higher education, including research and professional training initiatives, to enhance human capital development as it is key to ensuring sustainable development in the country. The strategy works alongside the implementation of operational plans in different sectors. This includes the National Science Program 2022-2026, which is aligned with national priorities and aims to increase the number of researchers, professors and university students in research projects. The programme implements the Advancing Science, Technology, Research and Innovation for Development (ASTRID) project, which focuses on agricultural research and development, and health security. The project specifically seeks to foster food and nutrition security, mitigate climate change effects, and promote the preservation of the environment. 

Initiatives to encourage Cabo Verde’s population to participate in research are developed through the National Science Programme 2022-20026. In November 2022, the Ministry of Education invited the public to participate in the Competition for the award of the Cabo Verde Global Scientific Prize. The initiative is directed at higher education and science sectors, to encourage research, boost science action and scientific and technological knowledge, promote Cabo Verde’s innovation and knowledge in the global scientific system, and support sustainable development in the country. The winners will receive funding for their research proposal and their research will be published. 

The University of Cabo Verde has focused on including climate change and environmental studies in higher education. The Third National Communication mentions that for the 2017/2018 academic year, the university included courses and postgraduate programmes such as master’s degrees in areas such as the environment and environmental development, and a Master’s in Education for Sustainable Development. More recently, the university has developed a master’s programme in Climate, Resources and Risks. This includes climate change, follows a multidisciplinary approach and aims to provide post-graduate students with the opportunity to specialize. It has focused on identifying risks and proposing sustainable solutions, including work in climate and climate change research. The university also offers a bachelor’s degree in Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, which focuses on environmental preservation and resource sustainability, and a bachelor’s degree in Biological Sciences, which aims to develop students’ skills in biological and evolutionary approaches to climate, with a focus on environmental education. 

The University of Cabo Verde has hosted a number of conferences related to the environment and climate change. In November 2021, it hosted the VI Lusophone Congress on Environmental Education for Portuguese-speaking countries, and in June 2023 a conference on Climate change and sustainable development

The Atlantic Technical University Atlantic Cabo Verde takes part in international cooperation initiatives with entities such as the German Ministry of Education and Research, and the West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). As part of the Master Research Programme in Climate Change and Marine Sciences, the collaboration implements capacity-building projects focusing on adaptation to climate change impacts and land use management. The programme aims to provide knowledge and skills in climate change, marine sciences, and international and national environmental management in West Africa. 

The initiatives in National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030) involving academia and research institutes include the development and inclusion of adaptation in education curricula, the development of research programmes, and the systematization and documentation of scientific, technical, and local knowledge on climate change. The plan aims to achieve these initiatives by identifying research needs related to climate change, supporting and disseminating research, and offering programmes at master and doctoral levels that will include climate research topics. 

IV) Climate change in training and adult learning

The Ministry of Agriculture and Environment has joined efforts with national and international bodies to provide training related to climate change in different sectors. For instance, the Biodiversity and Tourism Project (BIO-TUR) was implemented by the National Directorate for Environment and stakeholders such as the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in the period 2017-2022. The aim was to integrate biodiversity into tourism planning and operations, as well as to increase and strengthen coastal and marine ownership of protected areas in the country. The project included other projects such as that implemented on Boa Vista Island, where 25 young people and leaders of the community were trained in the exploitation and conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable exploitation of marine resources and coastal and terrestrial protected areas. 

Regarding the protection of the ozone layer, the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment held a training session in June 2019 on substances that deplete the ozone layer. The aim was to build the capacity of technicians working in the field, to raise awareness about biocontrol agents in relation the problematic destruction of the ozone layer and better application of legislation. 

The Rural Socioeconomic Opportunities Promotion Programme (POSER) works under the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment and promotes employment and income opportunities for the most vulnerable rural populations. The programme focuses on developing resilience to climate change. Thus far, around 21,727 people have benefited from the programme, including men, women and youth. The programme covers themes related to environmental conservation and preservation climate change, and involves fisherfolk and fishmongers from São Nicolau, who participate in training on Fish Conservation and Handling

The implementation of the capacity-building plan that the National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030) promotes, is aimed at targeting technicians from different sectors and municipalities. The plan is expected to benefit around 1,500 people.

The National Association of Cabo Verdean Municipalities promotes capacity building at the regional level in different sectors, with an emphasis on health. Regarding the environment, the Association offers materials such as How to Build More Resilient Cities- A Guide for Local Public Managers (2012) from the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), which encourages learning about disaster risks, their causes, and how to reduce them by building more resilient communities. The guide is based on the principle that education and training programmes are essential for building more resilient cities and protecting the environment and natural barriers that mitigate natural disasters. The guide also promotes good practices that enhance climate change adaptation. 

The Institute of Employment and Professional Training (IEFP) is a public institution that works under the supervision of the Ministry of Finance and Business Promotion, which implements employment and training policies in Cabo Verde. The institute has different campuses across the country and offers training in different areas as well as job opportunities and e-learning. Climate change training programmes were not found at the time of writing. However, the institute has promoted training in related topics. For example, in 2019 the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment invited students to participate in an international programme held in Israel, Learning by Doing, which fostered knowledge in agriculture, livestock, food security, environment and agro-ecology. 

Through the Green Climate Fund, more effective capacity for combating climate change is being developed. In particular, the Enhance capacities of Cabo Verde in addressing the effects of climate change in key sectors of the Blue Economy project aims to develop a coordination mechanism that gathers key information for decision-making. It also focuses on building technical capacity that enables sectors related to the blue economy to understand the impact of climate change on their activities, increase capacity for finance mobilization work, and evaluate national needs for readiness and climate adaptation in different sectors. 


I) Climate change and public awareness

International cooperation around climate change takes place in a number of ways. For example, in March 2023 the Portuguese-speaking Association of Renewable Energies (ALER) stated that it is developing the Communication and Awareness Plan for the Sustainable Energy Access and Climate Action Plan for the Municipality of Praia and Ribeira Grande de Santiago. The initiative was created under the Covenant of Mayors for Sub-Saharan Africa (2016) projects. Through these projects, local authorities can voluntarily commit to implementing climate and energy policies in their communities and agree on a long-term vision that works around three pillars: sustainable energy access, climate mitigation, and climate adaptation. 

The National Plan for Environmental Education (2013-2022) aims to promote awareness of societal behavioural changes to guarantee the protection of a sustainable environment. According to the plan, environmental education in secondary education and higher education is crucial for instilling fundamental values in society and raising awareness about communities in Cabo Verde and other parts of the world. 

Initiatives under the National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030) are aimed at increasing the participation of the most vulnerable communities through awareness raising. To this end, the implementation of the communication plan will reach diverse target groups, including leaders, to enhance decision-making around climate change issues. 

The LANTUNA Association is a NGO for environmental conservation, which was created in 2013. The association operates in different parts of the island of Santiago, including natural parks and municipalities, and works with entities such as the National Directorate for Environment and the University of Alegre in Portugal. LANTUNA has a strong focus on raising awareness to instil the values of local biodiversity through television documentaries, brochures, and posters, and disseminating videos mainly on biodiversity, conservation and good environmental practices. According to the association, six communities are involved in the projects, which are ultimately benefiting 587 people. 

According to the Third National Communication, the Environmental Assessment System (SIA) is a component of public awareness, including information about climate change. The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) highlights the country’s commitment to strengthening participation and climate-empowerment of society in general and young people in particular in the area of climate change, including initiatives to increase public engagement. 

II) Climate change and public access to information

The Ministry of Agriculture and Environment publishes different types of information on its website. This includes: environmental legislation, news, information related to environmental education, consultations, statistics, environmental impact studies, as well as information on agriculture, food security, and nutrition. 

The Cabo Verde’s seabirds website offers broad information on environmental conservation, including climate change affairs. Users can find ways of conserving biodiversity and learn about the main threats to biodiversity, such as climate change.

The Government of Cabo Verde offers wide-ranging information related to the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development (2022-2026), which includes the Third Pillar Environment on its own website. The website highlights all processes and projects related to sustainable development in the country covered in the plan, including the Pillar-Environment. 

Improving the capacity to manage and share data and information is a key objective of the National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030). The plan aims to reach diverse groups across the country, including through initiatives such as educational and communication plans. The plan also fosters information sharing at the institutional level as well as the dissemination of climate change information through the media. The aim is to reduce vulnerabilities, make the language in adaptation materials widely accessible, and facilitate access to information on early warning systems to prevent natural disasters. 

For the elaboration of the National Plan for Environmental Education (2013-2022), the availability of information related to environmental education was evaluated. The action plan highlights the strengthening of communication, participation and organization through actions such as creating informative material on environmental education for the public. Social media is seen to be the best way to disseminate educational programmes, including on environmental topics such as sanitation, environmental education and ecotourism.

According to the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), the country aims to implement a digital platform by 2023. The platform will provide open access to data and interactive tools, with the purpose of knowledge building and sharing, engaging the population in climate conversations, improving climate literacy, and building skills overall to combat climate change. 

The Third National Communication indicates that the government website for the country’s Environmental Assessment System (SIA), developed by the National Directorate for the Environment, offers diverse information related to the environment. This includes information on legislation, projects and studies for public consultation, climate change issues, and news about training workshops. Users are also able to access other relevant information about the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment, such as current documents, plans and studies.

III) Climate change and public participation

In Cabo Verde public participation is guaranteed by the Political Constitution (last revision in 2010). It states that the government will create the conditions for citizen participation in the political, economic, social, and cultural organization of the state and Cabo Verdean society. 

Some government institutions, such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment, secure the right to invite public participation. For instance, through the ministry’s Environmental Impact Studies in Public Consultation (provided under Law 27/2020) the general public has access to case studies relating to public and private environmental evaluations. 

The National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030) was developed through a consultation process and it highlights the importance of the principles of equality and public participation. The plan fosters public participation so that people can engage in decision-making and adaptation processes. Over the course of the different strategic adaptation actions, an operational climate forum will be developed, where municipalities and civil society will have the opportunity to participate. 

Public participation is also promoted in the elaboration of other environmental policies and plans. For instance, the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014-2030 notes that the plan is the result of a highly participatory process, involving state institutions and decentralized services, municipalities, private sector and academia, and CSOs.

In line with the Nationally Determined Contribution (2021), Cabo Verde is committed to increasing the country’s 2030 climate ambitions through different actions, including the planning, managing and the monitoring of progress. To achieve this, the country will foster a national climate governance system based on inclusive consultation, institutional coherence and scientific excellence. This will include the empowerment of the youth, women and all society in climate change policymaking. The document mentions that the Government of Cabo Verde will institute a large public participation process on climate change. This is based on the principle that consultations with the public should be part of the monitoring and future adjustment of climate policy and of the process for defining Cabo Verde’s Low Term Emissions Development Strategy 2050. Each year of the public participation process is expected to end with a civic forum called ‘The Cabo Verde we want by 2050’.

A key objective of the National Plan for Environmental Education (2013-2022) is the establishment of a national participatory framework for appropriate action and promoting a strong environment. The plan notes that the processes and methodologies for environmental education include the values of participation and collective engagement in awareness-raising initiatives, and the involvement of target groups in different phases of decision-making.


I) Country monitoring

The Nationally Determined Contribution (2021) notes its adherence to the commitments set out in Ambition 2030. One of these is the creation of a monitoring system for tracing climate change-related risks to public health and integrating climate change resilience targets into the national health policy framework. 

In parallel, the National Adaptation Plan (2022-2030) includes the aim to improve capacity throughout the government. Through the Operationalization of a Comprehensive Monitoring and Evaluation Plan, it is expected to implement a monitoring and evaluation system for the progress of adaptation activities, which should inform the learning of adaptation around the country. 

The work of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment includes preparing, collecting, processing, and disseminating statistics, with the support of the National Institute of Statistics (INE). At the time of writing, only agricultural statistics were published on the ministry’s website. 

Regarding education, the Ministry of Education makes educational statistics and indicators publicly available, and people can request information individually. Specific statistical information on environmental or climate change education was only found for higher education. For example, the Statistical Yearbook of Higher Education (2017-2018) mentioned the number of students in life science, environment and health for that year (which dropped by 0.4%), and the number of courses and programmes in each field. It also indicates that 38.2% of the total higher education students in the country were studying sciences, exact sciences, engineering, technologies and life sciences, the environment, and health. 

In August 2022, the Ministry of Education, in collaboration with stakeholders such as UNICEF and the National Planning Directorate, presented the National Consultation Report-Transforming Education Summit. The consultations were conducted through six participatory meetings with different target groups including students, children, teachers and the relevant authorities. The consultations helped to identify gaps and plan the next steps. For instance, it was found that most participants considered that education in Cabo Verde does not prioritize sustainable development, and that issues such as climate change, the sustainable use of energy, and pollution are not sufficiently addressed. 

The National Institute of Statistics (INE) is responsible for creating national statistics for different sectors such as: the economy; education and professional training; youth; science, technology and innovation; and the environment. For the environment, statistics are available on environmental conditions, solid waste, extreme events and disasters, protection, management, and sustainability commitments. At the time of writing, however, access to information was limited. 

According to the Sustainable Development Report (2022), Cabo Verde still faces challenges in achieving Quality Education (SDG 4). Progress towards this goal is less than 50% of the required rate. Progress on the Climate Action Goal (SDG 13) was better, but the score has plateaued. The report does not specify the score on either target 4.7 (education for sustainable development) and target 13.3 (on climate education).

II) MECCE Project Monitoring

The MECCE Project also examined Cabo Verde’s Education Sector Plan 2017-2021 (2017), for references to ‘climate change’, ‘environment’, ‘sustainability’, and ‘biodiversity.’ In total, three references were found in the document, and all related to ‘environment’. 

This section will be updated as the MECCE Project develops.

This profile was reviewed by: 

Ana Carla Gonçalves, Project Coordinator Associaçao para a Defesa do Ambiente e Desenvolvimento 

Dheeraj Jayant, Executive Director – Associação de conservação da biodiversidade – Biflores (Ilha Brava)